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Table 2 Time trends of EI/BMR-values, mean energy- and nutrient intake per day and comparisons between birth cohorts

From: Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971–2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden

Birth cohort1901–021911–12192219301944  
Examination years1971–721981–831992–932000–022014–16  
Womenn = 188n = 130n = 136n = 321n = 474Linear trendRecommended daily intake*
Daily intake (except EI/BMR)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P value 
 EI/BMR11.44 (0.44)1.50 (0.40)1.44 (0.38)1.48 (0.38)1.52 (0.37)ͣ ʲ ʳ0.022 
 Energy (kcal)1869 (512)1974 (509)1885 (458)1970 (472)ª2006 (453)ª ʲ0.001 
 Protein (g)67 (17)70 (19)76 (18)ª ʰ77 (19)ª ʰ84 (22)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001 
 Protein (g/kg BW)11.03 (0.32)1.04 (0.32)1.13 (0.32)ª ʰ1.11 (0.32)ª ʰ1.24 (0.38)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.00011,20 g/kg BW
 Fat (g)75 (25)82 (25)ª74 (25)ʰ76 (26)ʰ83 (26)ª ʲ ʳ0.001 
 Carbohydrates (g)219 (65)226 (64)213 (58)226 (61)ʲ202 (59)ª ʰ ʳ0.0001 
 Alcohol (g)21 (2)2 (4)4 (7)5 (6)ʰ9 (10) ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001< 10
 Fibre (g)16 (5)19 (6)ª20 (7)ª21 (7)ª ʰ ʲ25 (8)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000125–30
 Vitamin D (μg)5.6 (2.2)5.1 (1.8)ª6.4 (3.0)ª ʰ6.5 (2.8)ª ʰ8.3 (3.8)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000110
 Vitamin C (mg)93 (55)83 (44)112 (70)ª ʰ128 (68)ª ʰ ʲ152 (78)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000175
 B12 (μg)10.0 (6.0)7.6 (5.5)ª9.5 (9.0)ʰ6.5 (4.0)ª ʲ6.5 (3.0)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.00012
 Folate (μg)207 (63)211 (61)250 (100)ª ʰ264 (79)ª ʰ347 (114)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001300
 Iron (mg)13 (4)12 (4)ª12 (4)12 (3)12 (3)ª0.0779
 Calcium (mg)928 (348)1025 (367)ª1058 (374)ª1055 (393)ª1028 (399)ª0.003800
Menn = 182n = 132n = 63n = 233n = 387  
 EI/BMR11.42 (0.35)1.59 (0.43)ª1.45 (0.45)ʰ1.56 (0.42)ª1.40 (0.34)ʳ0.095 
 Energy (kcal)2290 (546)2555 (644)ª2402 (707)2603 (659)ª ʲ2358 (519)ʰ ʳ0.538 
 Protein (g)80 (20)86 (22)ª94 (26)ª ʰ98 (25)ª ʰ95 (23) ª ʰ< 0.0001 
 Protein (g/kg BW)11.06 (0.28)1.13 (0.34)ª1.16 (0.33)ª1.21 (0.35)ª1.16 (0.33)ª0.00041,20 g/kg BW
 Fat (g)92 (27)106 (34)ª91 (30)ʰ101 (36)ª96 (29)ʰ0.597 
 Carbohydrates (g)268 (70)288 (76)ª274 (101)289 (83)ª236 (67) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001 
 Alcohol (g)25 (5)9 (13)9 (11)13 (15)ʰ ʲ17 (17)ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001< 20
 Fibre (g)19 (6)22 (8)ª22 (8)ª24 (8)ª ʰ27 (9) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000125–30
 Vitamin D (μg)6.7 (2.5)6.4 (2.5)8.1 (3.2)ª ʰ8.4 (3.5)ª ʰ9.6 (4.7) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000110
 Vitamin C (mg)85 (45)84 (42)100 (56)ʰ129 (80)ª ʰ ʲ147 (85) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.000175
 B12 (μg)10.9 (6.1)8.0 (4.3)ª12.8 (9.2)ʰ8.7 (5.8)ª ʲ7.8 (4.1) ª ʲ ʳ< 0.00012
 Folate (μg)230 (59)245 (74)268 (83)ª301 (107)ª ʰ ʲ356 (116) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001300
 Iron (mg)15 (5)16 (5)16 (6)16 (4)13 (3) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.00019
 Calcium (mg)1051 (393)1217 (450)ª1170 (400)ª1312 (557)ª ʲ1059 (411)ʰ ʲ ʳ0.901800
  1. *Based on the Nordic nutrition recommendations 2012
  2. 1There were missing protein/kgBW (body weight) and EI/BMR values, due to missing weight data, for one women in birth cohort 1911, five in birth cohort 1922, three in birth cohort 1930, two in birth cohort 1944 and four men in birth cohort 1922 and one man in birth cohort 1930
  3. 2Linear trends in alcohol intake are based on data from 1981 to 2016
  4. ªSignificant difference compared with birth cohort1901–02
  5. ʰSignificant difference compared with birth cohort 1911–12
  6. ʲSignificant difference compared with birth cohort 1922
  7. ʳSignificant difference compared with birth cohort1930