Skip to main content

Table 4 Daily per capita energy intake (kcal) from beverage categories in 2015, by socio-demographic variable (N = 20,176)

From: Beverage consumption and energy intake among Canadians: analyses of 2004 and 2015 national dietary intake data

  Other unsweetened SSBs Plain milk Alcoholic beverages 100% juice Diet or light beverages
Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean energy in kcal (95% CI) Adjusted p-value
Model statistics n F(26,20,176) = 15.46 F(26,20,176) = 55.35 F(26,20,176) = 85.49 F(26,20,176) = 51.42 F(26,20,176) = 43.51 F(1,20,176) = 16.30
Sex   p = 0.4423 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p = 0.3181
 Male 10,096 5.1 (3.2, 7.0) 119.9 (111.1, 128.7) 70.3 (65.7, 74.9) 96.5 (85.5, 107.4) 38.7 (35.3, 42.0) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)
 Female 10,080 6.0 (5.0, 6.9) 77.5 (72.1, 82.9) 57.9 (54.2, 61.5) 45.4 (39.8, 51.1) 28.7 (26.6, 30.9) 1.7 (0.8, 2.6)
Age (years)   p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001
 1–8 1800 0.2 (0.0, 0.4) 74.0 (66.4, 81.6) 149.8 (140.5, 159.1) 0.6 (0.0, 1.6)* 56.3 (51.4, 61.3) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5)
 9–18 2230 1.1 (0.3, 1.8) 152.0 (141.0, 163.0) 98.9 (93.0, 104.7) 5.0 (2.5, 7.4) 54.5 (49.9, 59.1) 0.8 (0.5, 1.2)
 19–30 2622 5.1 (3.0, 7.2) 165.6 (139.0, 192.2) 61.0 (45.3, 76.6) 91.0 (66.1, 115.9) 41.7 (32.1, 51.2) 0.8 (0.5, 1.2)
 31–50 6150 8.8 (5.7, 12) 101.1 (90.3, 111.8) 45.1 (40.7, 49.6) 86.2 (73.1, 99.3) 27.1 (23.2, 31.0) 1.5 (1.1, 1.9)
 51+ 7374 5.6 (4.9, 6.3) 62.9 (57.4, 68.3) 49.6 (46.4, 52.8) 88.3 (79.1, 97.4) 24.6 (22.3, 26.8) 2.4 (1.1, 3.7)
Ethnicity   p = 0.0975 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p = 0.1870 p = 0.0015
 White only 14,452 5.5 (4.6, 6.3) 97.7 (91.4, 104.0) 65.3 (62.0, 68.6) 86.5 (78.9, 94.1) 33.3 (30.9, 35.7) 1.9 (1.2, 2.6)
 Chinese only 915 5.4 (0.4, 10.3) 53.2 (40.8, 65.6) 48.8 (40.1, 57.5) 8.8 (4.8, 12.8) 23.9 (17.2, 30.7) 0.2 (0.0, 0.5)*
 South Asian only 994 3.2 (2.0, 4.4) 103.5 (78.4, 128.7) 98.4 (76.1, 120.6) 17.5 (3.9, 31.1) 30.5 (23.4, 37.5) 0.7 (0.2, 1.2)
 Black only 706 2.7 (0.6, 4.7) 107.0 (85.4, 128.6) 48.4 (31.7, 65.0) 23.2 (10.8, 35.6) 46.0 (33.6, 58.4) 0.7 (0.0, 1.6)*
 Indigenous inclusive 606 2.0 (0.8, 3.3) 141.6 (112.6, 170.6) 67.3 (53.5, 81.1) 45.5 (28.0, 63.1) 36.9 (23.9, 49.9) 2.5 (0.8, 4.2)
 Mixed/other/not stated/missing 2504 8.7 (2.6, 14.9) 106.5 (82.2, 130.8) 52.9 (46.4, 59.4) 44.8 (24.0, 65.6) 36.6 (30.9, 42.4) 0.6 (0.3, 0.8)
Income quartile   p = 0.3040 p = 0.4077 p = 0.3396 p < .0001 p = 0.8863 p = 0.2099
 1 (lowest income) 3758 7.1 (2.9, 11.3) 97.0 (85.7, 108.3) 71.7 (61.5, 82.0) 39.5 (31.5, 47.5) 34.6 (29.9, 39.3) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
 2 3854 4.1 (3.2, 5.0) 92.4 (83.6, 101.1) 64.5 (58.6, 70.4) 68.0 (55.8, 80.2) 35.9 (31.2, 40.7) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2)
 3 3634 5.3 (3.3, 7.3) 97.3 (87.1, 107.6) 65.2 (58.3, 72.0) 73.8 (61.6, 85.9) 33.1 (29.1, 37.1) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5)
 4 (highest income) 3796 6.2 (4.6, 7.8) 98.8 (84.0, 113.6) 57.5 (52.5, 62.6) 99.0 (83.5, 114.4) 29.0 (24.3, 33.6) 3.8 (1.2, 6.3)
 Not reported 5135 5.2 (4.1, 6.4) 105.6 (92.2, 119.1) 62.3 (57.5, 67.1) 73.5 (57.3, 89.7) 35.3 (30.7, 39.8) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5)
Province   p < .0001 p < .0001 p = 0.0001 p = 0.0029 p < .0001 p < .0001
 NL 300 3.4 (2.5, 4.3) 110.2 (90.6, 129.8) 52.4 (45.5, 59.3) 60.2 (41.4, 78.9) 32.2 (25.9, 38.4) 2.3 (1.5, 3.0)
 PEI 83 3.1 (1.6, 4.6) 104.1 (90.9, 117.3) 72.3 (64.0, 80.6) 55.7 (38.9, 72.4) 35.1 (26.0, 44.2) 1.4 (0.9, 1.9)
 Nova Scotia 531 3.1 (2.3, 3.9) 99.4 (85.4, 113.4) 63.8 (56.7, 70.9) 71.9 (51.9, 91.9) 28.9 (23.8, 34.1) 1.8 (1.0, 2.6)
 New Brunswick 421 3.2 (1.7, 4.8) 114.9 (97.7, 132.2) 67.5 (58.7, 76.3) 73.2 (52.6, 93.8) 30.6 (25.1, 36.0) 2.4 (1.3, 3.5)
 Quebec 4704 9.6 (5.6, 13.6) 90.5 (80.0, 101.0) 74.5 (65.8, 83.2) 89.7 (72.7, 106.6) 52.5 (46.2, 58.8) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
 Ontario 7834 4.0 (2.9, 5.0) 102.8 (92.2, 113.5) 59.8 (54.8, 64.8) 56.0 (47.8, 64.2) 29.4 (26.4, 32.4) 1.8 (0.7, 3.0)
 Manitoba 694 3.4 (1.9, 4.9) 112.9 (97.6, 128.2) 70.5 (62.9, 78.1) 55.5 (40.1, 71.0) 28.3 (23.1, 33.4) 2.8 (1.2, 4.3)
 Saskatchewan 613 2.0 (1.2, 2.7) 96.0 (81.5, 110.6) 76.7 (66.6, 86.8) 59.7 (36.4, 83.0) 28.7 (22.8, 34.6) 1.4 (0.9, 1.9)
 Alberta 2352 4.7 (2.5, 6.9) 123.0 (106.1, 139.9) 64.2 (58.1, 70.3) 83.1 (61.1, 105.1) 24.7 (20.4, 28.9) 1.9 (1.0, 2.8)
 British Columbia 2644 6.4 (4.1, 8.6) 72.2 (63.5, 80.9) 54.4 (49.0, 59.8) 79.0 (66.1, 91.9) 25.2 (20.8, 29.5) 0.6 (0.3, 0.8)
BMI category   p = 0.2642 p = 0.2394 p = 0.5178 p = 0.1439 p = 0.0268 p = 0.0009
 Underweight/normal 6002 5.6 (4.2, 7.0) 109.0 (99.2, 118.8) 70.3 (64.7, 75.8) 63.3 (53.8, 72.8) 41.9 (38.1, 45.7) 0.6 (0.4, 0.8)
 Overweight 4308 5.7 (4.2, 7.2) 89.7 (82.2, 97.2) 61.3 (54.3, 68.3) 73.0 (61.1, 84.9) 30.9 (26.8, 35.0) 1.5 (1.1, 1.9)
 Obese 3115 4.8 (3.5, 6.1) 97.9 (84.2, 111.7) 59.3 (53.2, 65.4) 84.3 (69.1, 99.5) 27.1 (23.0, 31.2) 4.0 (1.1, 6.9)
 Don’t know/refusal/not stated 6752 5.7 (2.9, 8.5) 95.6 (84.3, 106.9) 62.6 (57.8, 67.4) 70.4 (58.1, 82.7) 31.3 (27.7, 34.8) 1.3 (0.9, 1.7)
  1. No model was constructed for plain water as this beverage category contained no energy. All means are weighted ‘arithmetic means’ (also referred to as ‘observed means’), and not linear regression adjusted least squares means. Models statistics are for separate linear models using generalized least squares regression for each beverage category, with covariates sex, age, ethnicity, income, province, and BMI category; α = 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, kcal kilocalorie, NF Newfoundland and Labrador, PEI Prince Edward Island, SSBs Sugar-sweetened beverages
  3. *Estimates for these 95% confidence intervals contained values less than zero. For reporting, these values were replaced with ‘0’ as they were a result of the bootstrap resampling method and not an indication of negative consumption