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Table 2 Gender- and BMI-stratified odds ratios and 95% CIs for IBS across quintiles of DII scorea

From: Adherence to the pro-inflammatory diet in relation to prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome

Quintiles of DII score
 Q1Q3Q5 
Median DII−2.05−0.02+ 2.06P-trend
Male
 Crude1.001.35 (0.87–2.08)1.22 (0.80–1.88)0.46
 Multivariable-adjustedb1.001.53 (0.94–2.48)1.33 (0.82–2.16)0.39
Female
 Crude1.000.96 (0.69–1.34)1.54 (1.12–2.13)0.04
 Multivariable-adjustedb1.000.99 (0.70–1.41)1.41 (1.00–2.00)0.22
BMI < 25 (kg/m2)
 Crude1.001.08 (0.73–1.59)1.37 (0.95–1.96)0.08
 Multivariable-adjustedc1.001.06 (0.70–1.59)1.22 (0.83–1.80)0.45
BMI ≥ 25 (kg/m2)
 Crude1.001.15 (0.80–1.66)1.41 (0.96–2.07)0.27
 Multivariable-adjustedc1.001.32 (0.88–1.98)1.64 (1.07–2.53)0.09
  1. aValues are OR (95% CIs). IBS was defined as having recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort at least sometimes in the last 3 months associated with two or more of these criteria: improvement with defecation at least sometimes and onset associated with change in frequency or form (appearance) of stool at least sometimes
  2. bAdjusted for physical activity, smoking status, medication use, disease history (diabetes, colitis), psychological distress, regular meal pattern, chewing sufficiency, fluid consumption and dental status
  3. cAdjusted for sex, physical activity, smoking status, medication use, disease history (diabetes, colitis), psychological distress, regular meal pattern, chewing sufficiency, fluid consumption and dental status