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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression of the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the incidence of depressive symptoms by change in seaweed intakes with different cutoff values at 3-year follow-up (n = 500)

From: Dietary seaweed intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese adults: a prospective cohort study

  Change in seaweed intakes p for trend
Decreased Unchanged Increased
Range, g/1000 kcal/day −46.1, −1.0 −1.0, 1.0 1.0, 39.5  
No. of participants 193 117 190  
No. of participants with depressive symptoms 24 9 13  
 Model 1a 1.00 (ref) 0.55 (0.22–1.36) 0.47 (0.21–1.03) 0.063
 Model 2b 1.00 (ref) 0.44 (0.17–1.11) 0.41 (0.18–0.92) 0.035
 Model 3c 1.00 (ref) 0.46 (0.18–1.21) 0.37 (0.16–0.87) 0.025
 Model 4d 1.00 (ref) 0.47 (0.18–1.26) 0.40 (0.17–0.94) 0.037
  Change in seaweed intakes p for trend
Decreased Unchanged Increased
Range, g/1000 kcal/day −46.1, −3.0 −3.0, 3.0 3.0, 39.5  
No. of participants 120 252 128  
No. of participants with depressive symptoms 15 25 6  
 Model 1a 1.00 (ref) 0.70 (0.29–1.67) 0.29 (0.10–0.91) 0.029
 Model 2b 1.00 (ref) 0.55 (0.22–1.36) 0.29 (0.08–0.82) 0.020
 Model 3c 1.00 (ref) 0.57 (0.22–1.47) 0.23 (0.07–0.77) 0.015
 Model 4d 1.00 (ref) 0.61 (0.23–1.60) 0.27 (0.08–0.89) 0.023
  1. aAdjusted for baseline Self-rating Depression Scale, baseline seaweed intakes, sex, log age, and log body mass index
  2. bSame as Model 1 + occupation (desk work), education level (≥college), and living status (alone)
  3. cSame as Model 2 + smoking status (current, former, never), alcohol use frequency (every day, sometimes, never), breakfast skipping (≥3 times/week), physical activity (0, 0.1–22.9, ≥ 23 metabolic equivalent hours/week), and metabolic syndrome
  4. dSame as Model 3 + change in intakes of protein, green leafy vegetables, and fish