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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression of the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the incidence of depressive symptoms by change in seaweed intakes at 3-year follow-up (n = 500)

From: Dietary seaweed intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese adults: a prospective cohort study

  Change in seaweed intakes p for trend
Decreased Unchanged Increased
Range, g/1000 kcal/day –46.1, −2.0 −2.0, 2.0 2.0, 39.5  
No. of participants 152 193 155  
No. of participants with depressive symptoms 21 14 11  
 Model 1a 1.00 (ref) 0.42 (0.18–0.97) 0.39 (0.16–0.94) 0.043
 Model 2b 1.00 (ref) 0.32 (0.13–0.78) 0.33 (0.13–0.82) 0.025
 Model 3c 1.00 (ref) 0.33 (0.13–0.83) 0.32 (0.13–0.81) 0.022
 Model 4d 1.00 (ref) 0.32 (0.13–0.81) 0.34 (0.13–0.88) 0.032
  1. aAdjusted for baseline Self-rating Depression Scale, baseline seaweed intakes, sex, log age, and log body mass index
  2. bSame as Model 1 + occupation (desk work), education level (≥college), and living status (alone)
  3. cSame as Model 2 + smoking status (current, former, never), alcohol use frequency (every day, sometimes, never), breakfast skipping (≥3 times/week), physical activity (0, 0.1–22.9, ≥ 23 metabolic equivalent hours/week), and metabolic syndrome
  4. dSame as Model 3 + change in intakes of protein, green leafy vegetables, and fish