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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the 13 articles included in the meta-analysis

From: The relationship between vitamin D and risk of atrial fibrillation: a dose-response analysis of observational studies

Author, publication year, countryStudy design, Follow upSource of parcipantConducted seasonCases/NDefinition of AF, measurement of vitamin DMean age (years), male (%)Expose levelRR (95%CI)Adjustment for confounders
Rienstra, 2011, USA [12]Prospective cohort, 9.9 yearsFramingham Heart StudyNA425/2930ECG, competitive protein-binding assay and radioimmunoassay65, 44Continuous variable0.99 (0.89–1.10)Age, sex, BMI, PR interval, and cardiac murmur.
Chen, 2014, China [9]Case-control, NAChinese PLA General HospitalWinter162/322ECG, chemilumiscence assay65, 45< 20 ng/ml 21–29 ng/ml ≥ 30 ng/ml continuous variable1.97 (1.31–2.97) 1.32 (1.06–1.66) ref. 0.4 (0.30–0.80)Age, systolic blood pressure, hsCRP, LAD, LV end diastolic diameter, LVEF, and PASP.
Demir, 2014, Turkey [10]Case-control, NABursa Education and Research HospitalWinter198/298NA, BioSource 25-OH Vit.D3-Ria-CT Kit62, 40Continuous variable0.86 (0.786–0.94)Medications, age, gender, and BMI.
Mathew, 2014, USA [14]Prospective cohort, 7.7 yearsMESA StudyNA291/6398ECG, hospital discharge diagnoses, inpatient and outpatient physician claims data62, 53.5Per 10 ng/mL0.92 (0.81–1.03)Age, gender, race/ethnicity, study site, attained education, low density, cholesterol, use of lipid-lowering medications, current smoking, diabetes, physical, activity, height, height squared, weight, urine albumin-creatinine-ratio, eGFR, systolic blood pressure, and use of hypertension medication.
Prospective cohort, 8.0 yearsCHS StudyNA229/135077, 71.3Per 10 ng/ml1.00 (0.88–1.14)
Ozcan,2015, Turkey [11]Prospective case-control, NAAnkara University HospitalWinter and Spring90/227ECG, chemiluminescent immunoassay68, 58< 20 ng/ml ≥ 20 ng/ml Continuous variable1.68 (1.18–2.64) Ref 0.86 (0.66–1.05)Age, gender, BMI, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, medications, serum levels of creatinine, calcium, LAD, LAEF, and PASP
Vitezova, 2015, Netherlands [13]Prospective cohort, 12 yearsThe Rotterdam StudyNA263/3295ECG, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay71, 41< 50 nmol/l 50–74 nmol/l ≥ 75 nmol/lref 0.82 (0.60–1.11) 0.76 (0.52–1.12)Age, gender, income, education, BMI, physical activity, diet quality score, smoking status and season and year when the blood was drawn.
Emren, 2016, Turkey [17]Prospective case-control study, NAResidents in AfyonkarahisarWinter and Spring71/212ECG, direct chemiluminescence immuno assay63, 75< 11.5 ng/ml ≥ 11.5 ng/mlref 0.95 (0.91–0.99)Age, male sex, chronic HF, AF episodes, COPD, chronic renal failure, DM, rheumatic heart disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and inadequate use of beta blockers or RAS blockers.
Alonso, 2016, USA [7]Prospective cohort, 18 yearsCommunities StudyNA1866/12,303ECG and Hospital discharge codes, high-sensitivity mass spectrom eter57, 43< 20 ng/ml 21–29 ng/ml ≥ 30 ng/ml1.10 (0.96–1.26) 1.09 (0.97–1.22) refAge, sex, race, study centre, education, alcohol consumption, height, BMI, smoking status, physical activity, systolic and diastolic BPs, medication, DM, coronary heart disease, HF, hsCRP, NT-pro-BNP, and eGFR.
Belen, 2016, Turkey [8]Case-control, NAHospital in OkmeydanNA96/180ECG, high-performance liquid chroma tography66, 54Continuous variable0.854 (0.805–0.907)Age, gender, BMI, etiology and chronic HF stage.
Gode, 2016, Turkey [19]Prospective case-control study, 5 dayHospital in IstanbulWinter15/90ECG, analysed in biochemistry laboratory58, 78≤ 30 ng/mL > 30 ng/mLref 0.856 (0.751–0.976)LAD, creatinine, cholesterol and DM.
Skuladottir, 2016, Iceland [29]Prospective case-control study, 72 hThe National University Hospital of IcelandNA66/118Holter monitoring, MS/MS Vitamin D KitNA, 80< 47.1 nmol/l ≥ 47.1 nmol/l1.31 (0.54–3.16) refAge, BMI, smoking, peak postoperative C-reactive protein, preoperative plasma DHA level and valvular surgery or complex surgical procedure
Turin, 2018, USA [16]Retrospective cohort, NALoyola University Medical CenterAll seasons2697/47,062ICD-9 code data, liquid chromatography-MSNA, 28< 20 ng/ml ≥ 20 ng/ml1.08 (0.95–1.22) refACEI/ARB use
Özsin, 2018, Turkey [18]Prospective randomized clinical, NAHospital in BursaWinter50/100ECG, Architect 25-OH vitamin D- Reagent Kit60, 70< 7.65 ng/dl ≥ 7.65 ng/dlref 0.855 (0.780–0.938)Age, gender, history of hypertension, DM, preoperative drug use, EF, LAD, BMI, body surface area, aortic cross clamp time, cardiopulmonary bypass time.
  1. Abbreviations: AF Atrial fibrillation, HF Heart failure, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LAD Left atrium diameter, LAVI Left atrial volume index, LV Left ventricle, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, PASP Pulmonary artery systolic pressure, BMI Body mass index, BP Blood pressure, DM Diabetes mellitus, NT-proBNP N-terminal of the prohorme B-type natriuretic peptide, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, RAS Renin-angiotensin system, POAF Postoperative atrial fibrillation, ECG, Electrocardiography, MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, CHS Cardiovascular Health Study, PLA People’s Liberation Army, ICD International classification of diseases, ACEI Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker, MS/MS Cascade mass spectrometry, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid