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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants MDHS, 2015–16 (n = 4047)

From: Association of low birth weight with undernutrition in preschool-aged children in Malawi

Characteristic Overall sample
nk (%)l
Stunted
%
Underweight
%
Wasted
%
Outcome variablesa
 Stunted
  No 2521 (61.03)
  Yes 1526 (38.97)
 Underweight
  No 3551 (88.69)
  yes 496 (11.31)
 Wasted
  No 3933 (97.70)
  Yes 114 (2.30)
Main independent variable
 Birth weight
  Low birthweightb 399 (10.11) 50.63* 23.81* 5.26*
  Normal and above 3648 (89.89) 36.29 10.99 2.55
Child characteristics
 Sex of the child
  Male 2005 (48.78) 39.30* 12.87 3.09
  Female 2042 (51.22) 36.14 11.66 2.55
 Age
  6–11 459 (11.70) 22.88* 9.59* 4.58*
  12–23 926 (21.98) 38.88 11.45 3.46
  24–35 921 (22.61) 41.91 12.49 2.71
  36–47 905 (22.98) 43.54 14.92 2.10
  48–59 836 (20.73) 33.61 11.48 2.03
 Multiple births
  Single births 3927 (97.09) 37.08* 12.12 2.85
  Twins 120 (2.91) 58.33 16.67 1.67
 Preceding birth interval (months)
   < 24 1352 (32.50) 40.24* 13.83 3.55
  24–47 1624 (41.30) 37.93 11.88 2.46
  48+ 1071 (26.20) 34.17 10.83 2.43
Child health related factors
 Recent diarrheac
  No 3178 (78.09) 37.44 11.80 2.39*
  Yes 869 (21.91) 38.67 13.92 4.37
 Recent feverd
  No 2783 (68.01) 37.33 11.93 2.34*
  Yes 1264 (31.99) 38.53 12.97 3.88
Maternal/household Characteristics
 Maternal age (years)
  15–19 239 (6.13) 37.24* 10.88 4.60
  20–24 1225 (29.36) 41.80 14.37 3.27
  25–29 1008 (24.62) 35.12 10.42 2.78
  30–34 792 (20.27) 34.22 11.74 2.15
  35–49 783 (19.63) 38.31 12.26 2.30
 Maternal education levels
  No education 542 (14.16) 46.13* 14.21* 2.03
  Primary 2685 (67.47) 38.40 12.63 2.83
  Secondary and above 820 (18.37) 29.88 9.76 3.29
 Maternal body mass indexe
  Underweight 229 (5.62) 43.67* 20.09* 5.68*
  Optimal weight 3014 (75.00) 39.38 12.67 2.92
  Overweight/obesity 804 (19.32) 29.73 8.46 1.62
 Wealth index
  Poorest 955 (26.09) 44.61* 15.39* 3.35
  Poorer 958 (24.69) 41.96 13.78 2.51
  Middle 800 (19.34) 38.50 11.50 2.63
  Richer 729 (17.55) 31.96 10.01 2.47
  Richest 605 (12.34) 25.95 8.60 3.14
 No of under-5-year children
   ≤ 1 1938 (47.51) 35.04* 11.56* 2.53*
  2–3 1776 (44.29) 39.36 11.88 2.87
   ≥ 4 333 (8.20) 44.44 18.32 4.20
 Amount of media exposuref
  0 2621 (64.76) 40.02* 13.47* 3.13
  1 1112 (27.48) 35.25 10.97 1.98
  2 272 (6.72) 27.57 6.62 2.94
  3 42 (1.04) 23.81 7.14 4.76
Household environmental factors
 Source of drinking water
  Unimproved 670 (15.88) 41.34* 14.18 3.13
  Improvedg 3377 (84.12) 36.99 11.87 2.75
Sanitation facility
  Unimproved 806 (20.80) 39.70 11.91 2.48
  Improvedh 3241 (79.20) 37.21 12.34 2.90
Health Service utilization
 Place of delivery
  Home and other 335 (8.79) 40.30 17.01* 3.28
  Hospital/institutioni 3712 (91.21) 37.47 11.83 2.77
 Perceived distance to health facility
  Perceived problem 1773 (40.28) 37.79 12.35 2.88
  Not perceived problem 2274 (59.72) 37.64 12.18 2.77
Community characteristics
 Place of residence
  Urban 481 (7.91) 27.86* 10.40 4.37*
  Rural 3566 (92.09) 39.04 12.51 2.61
 Geographical region
  Northern 710 (10.81) 31.69* 10.00 2.11
  Central 1458 (43.18) 40.26 11.93 2.40
  Southern 1879 (46.01) 38.00 13.36 3.41
  1. aEach index is expressed in SD from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards; SD standard deviation, WHO World Health Organization; bProportion of births with a reported birth weight < 2500 g regardless of gestational age; cpassage of three or more loose or liquid stools during a 24-h period; dself-reports by mothers about symptoms that had occurred within 2 weeks prior to the survey; eweight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2); ffrequency of reading newspaper or magazine, frequency of listening to radio, frequency of watching television.; gimproved drinking water (piped water into dwelling, piped water to yard/plot, public tap or standpipe, tubewell or borehole, protected dug well, protected spring and rainwater); himproved sanitation (flush toilet, piped sewer system, septic tank, flush/pour flush to pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet); igovernment hospital, government health center, government health post/outreach, other public sector, private hospital/clinic, CHAM/MISSION hospital, CHAM/MISSION health Center, BLM, other private medical sector, * < 0.05; kUnweighted frequency; lWeighted percentage