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Table 4 Associations between incremental consumption of 250 cal from low nutritive value foods and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Consumption of low nutritive value foods and cardiometabolic risk factors among French-speaking adults from Quebec, Canada: the PREDISE study

  Regression coefficients (95%CI)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Anthropometric measures
 Waist circumference, cm 4.8 (3.6 to 6.0) 0.8 (0.3 to 1.3) 0.6 (0.1 to 1.1)
P < 0.001 0.002 0.02
 BMI, kg/m2 1.8 (1.4 to 2.3) 1.9 (1.4 to 2.4) 1.7 (1.2 to 2.2)
P < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Body fat, % 2.2 (1.6 to 2.8) 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5) 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.5)
P < 0.001 0.13 0.38
Serum lipids, mmol/L
 Total cholesterol 0.09 (0.01 to 0.18) 0.11 (0.01 to 0.20) 0.11 (0.01 to 0.21)
P 0.03 0.02 0.03
 LDL cholesterol 0.06 (−0.01 to 0.13) 0.05 (− 0.03 to 0.13) 0.06 (− 0.02 to 0.15)
P 0.10 0.19 0.15
 HDL cholesterol −0.06 (− 0.09 to − 0.02) − 0.01 (− 0.05 to 0.03) −0.01 (− 0.05 to 0.03)
P 0.002 0.54 0.62
 TGa, % 13.7 (9.1 to 18.5) 9.0 (4.3 to 13.8) 7.8 (3.0 to 12.8)
P < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001
 Non-HDL cholesterol 0.15 (0.07 to 0.23) 0.12 (0.03 to 0.20) 0.12 (0.03 to 0.22)
P < 0.001 0.01 0.01
 Cholesterol:HDL cholesterol 0.23 (0.13 to 0.33) 0.12 (0.02 to 0.23) 0.12 (0.01 to 0.24)
P < 0.001 0.03 0.04
Blood pressure, mm Hg
 SBP 1.7 (0.6 to 2.7) 0.2 (−0.8 to 1.3) 0.2 (−0.9 to 1.3)
P 0.002 0.66 0.73
 DBP 1.7 (0.8 to 2.5) 0.5 (−0.4 to 1.4) 0.4 (−0.5 to 1.3)
P < 0.001 0.26 0.37
Glucose homeostasis
 Fasting glucosea, % 0.3 (−0.7 to 1.3) − 0.9 (−2.0 to 0.3) −0.9 (−2.1 to 0.3)
P 0.60 0.14 0.15
 Fasting insulina, % 8.0 (3.9 to 12.2) 0.2 (−3.6 to 4.1) −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.8)
P < 0.001 0.94 0.87
 HOMA-IRa, % 8.3 (3.7 to 13.0) −0.7 (− 4.9 to 3.6) −1.2 (−5.5 to 3.3)
P < 0.001 0.74 0.59
Inflammation
 C-reactive proteina, % 28.0 (16.4 to 40.8) 3.5 (−4.9 to 12.6) 2.4 (−6.2 to 11.7)
P < 0.001 0.43 0.60
  1. All values are regression coefficients (95% CI). P-values are the partial effect of calories from low nutritive value foods in the linear models. Usual intakes of low nutritive value foods were computed using the NCI method 2.1 and one-part models. Covariates are as follows
  2. Model 1: age, sex, center, number of weekend recalls, reporting status
  3. Model 2: model 1 and BMI (except for the outcome BMI), BMI-adjusted waist circumference (except for the outcome waist circumference and body fat percentage)
  4. Model 3: model 2 and physical activity, smoking, dietary supplement usage, medication usage and education level
  5. BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CI confidence intervals, HDL high-density lipoproteins, LDL low-density lipoproteins, SBP systolic blood pressure, TG triglycerides
  6. a Analyses were performed on log-transformed data. Hence, values are expressed as percentage change upon backtransformation calculated as 100 × exponential (logβx) – 100