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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects across tertiles of eGFR, n = 21,376 a

From: Dietary patterns in relation to testosterone levels and severity of impaired kidney function among middle-aged and elderly men in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

 TotalTertile of eGFR bP c
T1 (n = 7,128)T2 (n = 7,149)T3 (n = 7,099)
Demographic data, lifestyle, and medical history
 Age, years51.9 ± 10.058.0 ± 10.950.7 ± 8.547.1 ± 6.7<  0.001
 Education level, n (%)    <  0.001
   < High school3583 (17.0)1898 (53.0)1012 (28.2)673 (18.8) 
  High school9354 (44.4)2854 (30.5)3169 (33.9)3331 (35.6) 
   > High school8150 (38.6)2254 (27.7)2885 (35.4)3011 (36.9) 
 Marital status, n (%)    <  0.001
  Never married767 (3.8)148 (19.3)247 (32.2)372 (48.5) 
  Married18412 (91.0)6134 (33.3)6207 (33.7)6071 (33.0) 
  Widowed/divorced1048 (5.2)455 (43.4)320 (30.5)273 (26.1) 
 Family income, n (%)    <  0.001
   < 800,000 NTD7395 (37.7)2975 (40.2)2295 (31.0)2125 (28.8) 
  810,000–1.6 million NTD8197 (41.8)2338 (28.5)2873 (35.1)2986 (36.4) 
   > 1.61 million NTD4036 (20.6)1103 (27.3)1471 (36.5)1462 (36.2) 
 Smoking, n (%)    <  0.001
  Never11469 (55.4)4017 (35.0)3816 (33.3)3636 (31.7) 
  Past3140 (15.2)1120 (35.7)1078 (34.3)942 (30.0) 
  Current6086 (29.4)1728 (28.4)2046 (33.6)2312 (38.0) 
 Drinking alcohol, n (%)    0.001
  No14648 (73.0)4950 (33.8)4856 (33.1)4842 (33.1) 
  Yes5405 (27.0)1678 (31.1)1855 (34.3)1872 (34.6) 
 Sleeping, n (%)    <  0.001
   < 6 h4828 (23.1)1747 (36.2)1572 (32.6)1509 (31.2) 
  6–7 h10776 (51.5)3407 (31.6)3681 (34.2)3688 (34.2) 
   > 7 h5324 (25.4)1798 (33.8)1753 (32.9)1774 (33.3) 
 Physical activity, n (%)    0.07
  No12554 (66.9)4066 (32.4)4213 (33.6)4275 (34.0) 
  Yes6199 (33.1)2073 (33.4)2118 (34.2)2008 (32.4) 
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)1298 (6.5)746 (57.5)329 (25.3)223 (17.2)<  0.001
Hypertension, n (%)6533 (44.0)3051 (46.7)1941 (29.7)1541 (23.6)<  0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)2356 (11.0)1052 (44.6)666 (28.3)638 (27.1)<  0.001
Anthropometric measurements
 BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.124.9 ± 3.024.6 ± 3.024.5 ± 3.2<  0.001
 Systolic pressure (mmHg)124.7 ± 16.7128.1 ± 17.9124.0 ± 16.2122.0 ± 15.4<  0.001
 Diastolic pressure (mmHg)76.9 ± 11.277.9 ± 11.576.8 ± 11.175.9 ± 11.0<  0.001
Biochemical data
 FBG (mmol/L)6.0 ± 1.36.1 ± 1.56.0 ± 1.25.9 ± 1.3<  0.001
 TG (mmol/L)1.7 ± 1.21.7 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.11.7 ± 1.40.33
 TC (mmol/L)5.3 ± 0.95.3 ± 0.95.3 ± 0.95.2 ± 0.90.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.4 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.30.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L)3.2 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.83.1 ± 0.8<  0.001
 TC/HDL-C ratio4.0 ± 0.94.0 ± 0.94.0 ± 0.93.9 ± 0.9<  0.001
 Testosterone (nmol/L)d5.0 ± 1.64.6 ± 1.34.8 ± 1.45.4 ± 1.90.001
 CRP (nmol/L)23.2 ± 47.525.7 ± 48.922.3 ± 54.321.3 ± 37.2<  0.001
Kidney function biomarkers
 BUN (mmol/L)5.4 ± 1.46.0 ± 1.85.2 ± 1.14.9 ± 1.0<  0.001
 Creatinine (μmol/L)100.8 ± 19.6113.5 ± 29.098.4 ± 5.390.4 ± 4.1<  0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)75.4 ± 11.363.0 ± 7.774.5 ± 3.083.2 ± 3.4<  0.001
 Urinary protein, n (%)    <  0.001
   + 120260 (94.8)6481 (32.0)6909 (34.1)6870 (33.9) 
   + 2641 (3.0)311 (48.5)163 (25.4)167 (26.1) 
   + 3303 (1.4)188 (62.0)63 (20.8)52 (17.2) 
   + 4172 (0.8)148 (86.1)14 (8.1)10 (5.8) 
  1. NTD new taiwan dollar, BMI body mass index, FBG fasting blood glucose, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TC/HDL-C total cholesterol-to-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, CRP C-reactive protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. a Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD, and categorical data are presented as number (percentage)
  3. b Tertiles of eGFR, T1: ≤ 71.7 mL/min/1.73 m2; T2: 71.8–81.2 mL/min/1.73 m2; T3: ≥ 81.3 mL/min/1.73 m2
  4. c P was analyzed using general linear model for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  5. d Testosterone: all, n = 256; T1, n = 78; T2, n = 91; T3, n = 87