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Table 3 Mean (standard deviation) nutrient contents in the observed diets (i.e. mean observed diet) and in diets optimized with cost-constrained and cost-free models at three levels of acceptability constraintsa (n = 89 GSb)

From: Planning dietary improvements without additional costs for low-income individuals in Brazil: linear programming optimization as a tool for public policy in nutrition and health

Nutrient Unit Mean observed diet Rigorous Moderate Flexible
cost constrained cost free cost constrained cost free cost constrained cost free
Energy kcal 1792 (226) 1792 (226) 1792 (226) 1792 (226) 1792 (226) 1792 (226) 1792 (226)
Carbohydrates % kcal 51.7 (2) 51.3 (2.1) 51.6 (2.1) 50.6 (2.5) 51.4 (2.1) 50.4 (2.6) 52.6 (2.5)
Free sugars %kcal 8.4 (2.7) 6.2 (2.2) 6.6 (2.2) 7.4 (2.4) 6.6 (2.2) 7 (2.4) 5.3 (1.5)
Total fiber g 19.9 (3.2) 23.4 (2.4) 22.7 (2.4) 23.7 (3.1) 22.6 (2.8) 25.4 (3.5) 27.7 (3.2)
Protein %kcal 18.3 (1.8) 19.7 (1.8) 19.3 (1.8) 20.5 (2.3) 19.3 (1.9) 21 (2.2) 19.4 (2)
Total fat %kcal 30 (2.2) 30.4 (2.2) 30.2 (2.2) 30.5 (2.2) 30.4 (2.2) 30.6 (2.1) 30.3 (2)
Linoleic acid %kcal 4.8 (0.4) 5.3 (0. 4) 5.1 (0.1) 5.1 (0.1) 5.1 (0.1) 5.3 (0.1) 5.6 (0.1)
Linolenic acid %kcal 0.6 (0.1) 0.7 (0. 1) 0.7 (0.4) 0.7 (0.4) 0.6 (0.5) 0.7 (0.5) 0.7 (0.5)
Saturated fat %kcal 10.4 (1.2) 10.0 (1.1) 10.1 (1.1) 10.2 (1.2) 10.2 (1.1) 10.0 (1.1) 9.9 (1)
Trans fat %kcal 1.15 (0.3) 1.00 (0.2) 1.00 (0.2) 1.00 (0.2) 1.04 (0.2) 0.94 (0.2) 0.93 (0.1)
PUFA %kcal 6.16 (0.4) 6.9 (0.5) 6.59 (0.5) 6.8 (0.4) 6.65 (0.5) 7.02 (0.5) 7.05 (0.5)
MUFA kcal 10.03 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9) 10.0 (0.9)
Sodium mg 2995 (352) 2962 (352) 2963 (329) 2963 (350) 2967 (331) 2894 (352) 2954 (340)
Calcium mg 456 (75) 538 (78) 598 (77) 556 (72) 655 (94) 646 (94) 685 (111)
Copper mg 1.32 (0.5) 1.75 (0.35) 1.71 (0.36) 1.74 (0.35) 1.76 (0.41) 1.99 (0.4) 1.9 (0.44)
Iron mg 11.57 (1.7) 12.67 (1.24) 13.13 (1.35) 12.62 (1.26) 13.63 (1.38) 13.87 (1.15) 14.11 (1.38)
Phosphorus mg 975 (161) 1049 (158) 1132 (159) 1056 (157) 1175 (167) 1109 (160) 1200 (202)
Magnesium mg 228.9 (33) 262 (29.2) 281.6 (31) 261.5 (29.8) 298.9 (34.6) 305 (31) 328.2 (51.8)
Zinc mg 10.9 (1.7) 11.2 (1.5) 11.3 (1.5) 11.1 (1.5) 11.4 (1.4) 11.3 (1.4) 11.5 (1.5)
Niacin mg 25.1 (3.9) 27.8 (3.5) 29.9 (3.8) 27.9 (3.5) 31 (3.7) 28.7 (4.1) 31.2 (4.8)
Vitamin A c mcg 632 (342) 906 (247) 959 (240) 907 (242) 1019 (270) 1036 (276) 1062 (285)
Thiamin mg 1.14 (0.2) 1.24 (0.17) 1.25 (0.17) 1.23 (0.17) 1.28 (0.17) 1.28 (0.17) 1.28 (0.17)
Riboflavin mg 1.37 (0.3) 1.51 (0.25) 1.52 (0.23) 1.51 (0.25) 1.53 (0.23) 1.55 (0.23) 1.57 (0.22)
Vitamin B6 mg 1.43 (0.2) 1.52 (0.17) 1.62 (0.17) 1.51 (0.17) 1.66 (0.17) 1.56 (0.19) 1.68 (0.26)
Vitamin B12 mcg 6.12 (3) 7.72 (2.31) 7.99 (2.66) 7.69 (2.36) 8.1 (3.1) 7.92 (2.82) 8.05 (2.66)
Vitamin C mg 44.5 (17.4) 71.7 (19.2) 86.1 (21) 69.2 (19.5) 99 (20.4) 105.8 (27.5) 119.2 (35.1)
Vitamin D mcg 3.32 (2.2) 3.55 (2.07) 4.34 (2.27) 3.55 (2.08) 4.59 (2.26) 3.57 (2.09) 4.59 (2.47)
Vitamin E mg 5.47 (0.9) 5.92 (0.7) 6.74 (0.71) 5.92 (0.69) 7.28 (0.83) 6.99 (0.77) 7.69 (1.39)
Folate d mcg 416 (87) 447 (77) 461 (81) 446 (76) 468 (78) 465 (73) 472 (74)
  1. a The acceptability constraints reflect the flexibility in the modifications allowed in the optimized models from the usual food patterns. The rigorous constraints allow a smaller deviation from the usual intake than the moderate one, and this, a smaller than the flexible one
  2. b The unit of analysis were the 89 geographic-strata; which comprise 16,962 individuals
  3. c Micrograms of Retinol Equivalent Activity
  4. d Micrograms of Dietary Folate Equivalent