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Table 1 Nutritional constraints imposed on the linear programming models

From: Planning dietary improvements without additional costs for low-income individuals in Brazil: linear programming optimization as a tool for public policy in nutrition and health

Nutrient Unit Constraints
Energy Kcal = observeda
Carbohydrates b %kcal 45–55
Free sugar c %kcal < 10
Total fiber b g ≥31
Protein b %kcal ≥10
Total fat b %kcal 25–35
Saturated fat c %kcal < 10
Trans fat c %kcal < 1
Sodium mg ≤ observeda
Calcium d mg ≥1,021
Copper d mg ≥1.1
Iron d mg ≥10.7
Phosphorus d mg ≥888
Magnesium d mg ≥377
Zinc d mg ≥11.7
Niacin d mg ≥16.4
Vitamin A d,e mcg ≥803
Thiamin d mg ≥1.3
Riboflavin d mg ≥1.5
Vitamin B6 d mg ≥1.6
Vitamin B12 d mcg ≥4.2
Vitamin C d mg ≥84
Vitamin D e mcg ≥10
Vitamin E d mg ≥12
Folate d,f mcg ≥426
  1. a Mean observed caloric (and sodium) intake for the corresponding GS
  2. b Institute of Medicine (2001) [24]
  3. c World Health Organization (2003) [31]
  4. d Derived from the Recommended Dietary Allowance
  5. e Micrograms of Retinol Equivalent Activity
  6. f Micrograms of Dietary Folate Equivalent