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Table 4 Hazard ratios of hypertension according to dietary total antioxidant capacity of principal food groups. (N = 40,576). E3N Cohort, France 1993–2008

From: High dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension in French women

Dietary TAC (mmol/day)   M1 M2 M3
N (%) cases HR [95% CI] p-trend HR [95% CI] p-trend HR [95% CI] p-trend
Coffee    0.02   0.03   0.14
 Q1 (< 2.46) 1820 (19.47) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (2.46–9.15) 1861 (19.90) 0.99 [0.93; 1.06] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08] 0.98 [0.91; 1.05]
 Q3 (9.15–15.97) 1896 (20.28) 1.06 [0.99; 1.14] 1.07 [1.00; 1.14] 1.00 [0.93; 1.08]
 Q4 (15.97–24.99) 1925 (20.59) 1.08 [1.01; 1.16] 1.09 [1.01; 1.16] 0.99 [0.91; 1.09]
 Q5 (>  24.99) 1848 (19.76) 1.07 [0.99; 1.14]   1.07 [0.99; 1.15]   0.91 [0.80; 1.04]  
Tea    0.02   0.12   0.73
 Q1 (0) 3814 (40.79) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (0.01–0.36) 1412 (15.10) 0.95 [0.89; 1.02] 0.95 [0.89; 1.02] 0.97 [0.91; 1.03]
 Q3 (0.36–1.25) 1411 (15.09) 0.97 [0.91; 1.01] 0.97 [0.91; 1.03] 0.98 [0.92; 1.05]
 Q4 (1.25–2.22) 1385 (14.81) 0.97 [0.91; 1.03] 0.99 [0.92; 1.05] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08]
 Q5 (>  2.22) 1328 (14.20) 0.93 [0.87; 0.99]   0.95 [0.87; 1.01]   0.97 [0.91; 1.04]  
Chocolate    0.18   0. 11   0.23
 Q1 (0) 4175 (47.30) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (0.02–0.25) 1285 (14.56) 0.98 [0.92; 1.04] 0.96 [0.90; 1.02] 0.99 [0.90; 1.02]
 Q3 (0.26–0.53) 920 (10.42) 0.91 [0.85; 0.98] 0.90 [0.84; 0.97] 0.91 [0.85; 0.98]
 Q4 (0.54–1.30) 1151 (13.04) 0.96 [0.90; 1.03] 0.96 [0.89; 1.02] 0.96 [0.90; 1.03]
 Q5 (>  1.4) 1295 (14.67) 0.95 [0.89; 1.02]   0.94 [0.88; 1.00]   0.95 [0.89; 1.02]  
Fruit and vegetables    0.001   0. 0003   < 0.0001
 Q1 (<  0.99) 1907 (20.40) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (0.99–1.36) 1836 (19.64) 0.92 [0.86; 0.98] 0.91 [0.85; 0.98] 0.91 [0.85; 0.98]
 Q3 (1.36–1.71) 1869 (19.99) 0.92 [0.86; 0.99] 0.92 [0.86; 0.98] 0.91 [0.85; 0.97]
 Q4 (1.71–2.21) 1815 (19.41) 0.89 [0.83; 0.95] 0.87 [0.82; 0.93] 0.86 [0.80; 0.92]
 Q5 (>  2.21) 1923 (20.57) 0.88 [0.83; 0.95]   0.87 [0.82; 0.94]   0.84 [0.78; 0.91]  
Wine    0.85   0.84   0.008
 Q1 (0) 2202 (23.55) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (0.01–0.23) 1600 (17.11) 0.97 [0.90; 1.03] 0.96 [0.90; 1.03] 0.95 [0.89; 1.02]
 Q3 (0.23–0.71) 1805 (19.30) 0.95 [0.89; 1.02] 0.95 [0.89; 1.01] 0.92 [0.86; 0.99]
 Q4 (0.71–1.68) 1840 (19.68) 0.93 [0.87; 0.99] 0.93 [0.87; 0.99] 0.88 [0.82; 0.95]
 Q5 (>  1.68) 1903 (20.35) 0.97 [0.91; 1.04]   0.98 [0.92; 1.05]   0.86 [0.77; 0.95]  
Other sources    0.002   0.006   0.01
 Q1 (<  0.46) 1994 (21.33) Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Q2 (0.46–0.63) 1913 (20.46) 0.96 [0.89; 1.02] 0.95 [0.89; 1.02] 0.96 [0.90; 1.03]
 Q3 (0.63–0.82) 1848 (19.76) 0.93 [0.87; 0.99] 0.94 [0.88; 1.01] 0.96 [0.89; 1.03]
 Q4 (0.82–1.09) 1748 (18.70) 0.86 [0.80; 0.92] 0.86 [0.80; 0.93] 0.89 [0.82; 0.95]
 Q5 (>  1.09) 1847 (19.75) 0.91 [0.85; 0.99]   0.92 [0.86; 1.00]   0.93 [0.86; 1.01]  
  1. M1: Age as the time scale + energy without alcohol
  2. M2: M1 + (Diabetes, treated hypercholesterolemia, education, family history of hypertension, smoking, physical activity, body mass index)
  3. M3: M2 + Na (mg), K (mg), Mg (mg), AGPIw3 (mg), alcohol (g)