Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the participants aged ≥40 years old by kidney function status obtained from MJ Health Institute between 2008 and 2010

From: Association of kidney function-related dietary pattern, weight status, and cardiovascular risk factors with severity of impaired kidney function in middle-aged and older adults with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional population study

  Total
(n = 41,128)
Mildly impaired kidney functiona
(n = 37,882)
Moderately/Severely impaired kidney functionb
(n = 3246)
P c
Age (y) 52.6 ± 9.9 51.7 ± 9.3 62.9 ± 11.1 <  0.001
Sex, males 21,376 (52.0) 19,682 (52.0) 1694 (52.2) 0.800
Smoking status, current 6717 (16.3) 6304 (16.6) 413 (12.7) <  0.001
Drinking status, yes 6420 (15.6) 6032 (15.9) 388 (12.0) <  0.001
Physical activity, yes 10,814 (26.3) 9988 (26.4) 816 (25.1) <  0.001
High cardiovascular risk profile 2489 (6.1) 1933 (5.1) 556 (17.1) <  0.001
Hypertension status 11,779 (28.6) 10,008 (26.4) 1771 (54.6) <  0.001
Diabetes status 3974 (9.7) 3291 (8.7) 683 (21.0) <  0.001
Weight status
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 3.3 23.9 ± 3.3 24.7 ± 3.5 <  0.001
 Waist circumference 79.7 ± 9.7 79.4 ± 9.7 82.5 ± 10.1 <  0.001
 Hip circumference 95.2 ± 5.9 95.2 ± 5.9 95.4 ± 6.1 0.044
 WHR 0.9 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 0.1 <  0.001
 Body fat mass (%) 27.4 ± 6.9 27.3 ± 6.8 27.9 ± 7.5 <  0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 SBP (mmHg) 122.5 ± 18.2 121.8 ± 17.8 131.0 ± 20.2 <  0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 73.8 ± 11.8 73.6 ± 11.7 76.2 ± 12.1 <  0.001
 FBG (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 1.3 5.8 ± 1.2 6.3 ± 1.9 <  0.001
 TG (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 1.2 <  0.001
 TC (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 1.0 <  0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 <  0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.1 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.8 <  0.001
 TC/HDL-C 3.6 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.0 <  0.001
 Calcium (mmol/L) 2.3 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.1 <  0.001
 Phosphorus (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.2 0.816
Albumin, inflammatory biomarker, and kidney function
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.5 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.2 <  0.001
 CRP (nmol/L) 22.5 ± 47.9 21.4 ± 43.4 33.7 ± 81.0 <  0.001
 BUN (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 1.5 5.0 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 2.8 <  0.001
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 89.5 ± 22.2 86.8 ± 13.7 120.5 ± 54.8 <  0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 73.7 ± 9.9 75.7 ± 7.5 52.6 ± 8.6 <  0.001
Proteinuria     <  0.001
 + 1 39,311 (95.6) 36,623 (96.7) 2688 (82.8)  
 + 2 1041 (2.5) 819 (2.2) 222 (6.8)  
 ≥ + 3 776 (1.9) 440 (1.1) 336 (10.4)  
  1. BMI body mass index, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TC/HDL-C total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio, CRP C-reactive protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate. Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD, and categorical data are presented as numbers (percentage)
  2. aMildly impaired kidney function was defined as eGFR 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2
  3. bModerately/severely impaired kidney function was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2
  4. cThe P-value was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
\