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Table 2 Multi-variable adjusted odds ratio and 95% CI of meal skipping behaviours according to correlates from the individual, social-environmental and physical-environmental domains

From: Examining the correlates of meal skipping in Australian young adults

Variable Meal skipping (any meal) Breakfast skipping Lunch skipping Dinner skipping
  OR (95% CI) P^ OR (95% CI) P^ OR (95% CI) P^ OR (95% CI) P^
INDIVIDUAL DOMAIN
Education
 No University degree Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 University degree 0.46 (0.22, 0.95) 0.035
Ethnicity
 Australia Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Other 1.66 (0.96, 2.86) 0.07
Food culture/religion
 Yes Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 No
Smoking status
 Never Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Ex, Occasionally, Regularly smoke 1.79 (0.88, 3.65) 0.11 1.10 (1.15, 3.86) 0.016
Physical activity
 Not meeting guidelines Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Meeting guidelines 0.65 (0.35, 1.19) 0.16 0.61 (0.36, 1.03) 0.07
Time as a barrier 1.10 (0.96, 1.26) 0.17 1.12 (1.00, 1.26) 0.036 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) 0.033 1.11 (0.98, 1.27) 0.11
Self-efficacy to prepare foods 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) 0.20 0.98 (0.96, 1.01) 0.16 1.00 (0.97, 1.02) 0.86
Food insecurity 1.11 (0.91, 1.36) 0.30
Nutritional knowledge
Mood 0.99 (0.77, 1.27) 0.93 0.93 (0.75, 1.15) 0.48 1.16 (0.90, 1.48) 0.25
Hunger 1.20 (0.94, 1.54) 0.14 1.09 (0.89, 1.33) 0.41 1.19 (0.99, 1.41) 0.06 1.00 (0.78, 1.27) 0.30
Weight control 1.13 (0.89, 1.43) 0.30
Habit 1.05 (0.84, 1.34) 0.66 1.12 (0.93, 1.00) 0.16 1.10 (0.87, 1.40) 0.42
Taste
SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL DOMAIN
Relationship status
 In a relationship Reference   Reference   Reference    
 Single
Preference of other people at eating occasion
PHYSICAL-ENVIRONMENTAL DOMAIN
SEIFA
 Low Reference   Reference   Reference    
 Medium
 High
Housing type
 Living with family Reference   Reference   Reference    
 Living alone
 Living with flatmates
COVARIATES
 Age 0.92 (0.84, 1.00) 0.06 0.92 (0.85, 1.00) 0.05
 BMI 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) 0.039 1.06 (1.00, 1.11) 0.032 1.04 (0.99, 1.10) 0.10
Sex
 Male Reference   Reference   Reference    
 Female 0.49 (0.26, 0.93) 0.030 0.68 (0.39, 1.17) 0.17
  1. Results presented are the fully adjusted multivariable model, which includes all variables found to be substantially associated with the respective meal skipping behaviour in their Model 1 and age sex and BMI
  2. ^P-values were calculated using ordinal regression; P-Values < 0.05 are bolded
  3. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio, BMI Body Mass Index, SEIFA Socioeconomic Index for Areas