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Table 6 Association between Diabetes Status and Health Markers in U.S. adults (Age ≥ 20 years)

From: Healthy eating index versus alternate healthy index in relation to diabetes status and health markers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2007–2010

Health Markers (n) Diabetes Status ap-value
Nondiabetes (n = 1436) Prediabetes (n = 1905) Diabetes (n = 715)
LSM ± SE LSM ± SE LSM ± SE
aBMI (kg/m2) 4056 26.7 ± 0.2 29.6 ± 0.2 32.8 ± 0.4 <.0001*
aWC (cm) 3978 93.9 ± 0.6 100.9 ± 0.4 108.8 ± 0.9 <.0001*
aTotal cholesterol (mg/dl) 4029 197.6 ± 1.5 201.9 ± 1.0 181.1 ± 2.5 <.0001*
bHDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 4029 55.5 ± 0.5 52.9 ± 0.5 49.3 ± 0.6 <.0001*
aLDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 3952 117.3 ± 1.0 122.1 ± 0.9 101.3 ± 1.8 <.0001
aTG (mg/dl) 4025 116.9 ± 2.8 139.2 ± 2.7 168.8 ± 8.3 <.0001*
aTG / HDL cholesterol Ratio 4025 2.3 ± 0.08 3.2 ± 0.1 4.5 ± 0.3 <.0001
bCRP (mg/dl) 4045 0.4 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.02 0.2205
cInsulin (uU/mL) 3918 11.1 ± 0.3 14.1 ± 0.3 15.9 ± 0.7 <.0001*
cMean SBP (mm Hg) 3888 120.0 ± 0.4 122.4 ± 0.5 124.9 ± 1.1 <.0001
cMean DBP (mm Hg) 3888 67.8 ± 0.7 69.4 ± 0.4 68.0 ± 0.7 0.0155
aComorbidity Score 4056 1.7 ± 0.09 2.0 ± 0.09 3.0 ± 0.1 <.0001
  1. Values are least square means ± standard error of the mean (SE). Bonferroni correction (< 0.05/12 health markers), P < 0.004
  2. Mean blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) was calculated based on the average of the first three systolic BP readings of the participants while being examined at the MEC. The fourth reading was not included because of missing values. Co-morbidity score was calculated as the sum of self-reported presence of physician-diagnosed comorbidities that tend to co-occur with type 2 diabetes
  3. Abbreviations: LSM Least-Square Means, BMI Body Mass Index, WC Waist Circumference, TC Total Cholesterol, HDL-C High density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, LDL-C Low density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, CRP C-reactive protein
  4. aAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Poverty-to-Income Ratio, physical activity, and energy intake
  5. bAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Poverty-to-Income Ratio, physical activity, energy intake, and BMI
  6. cAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Poverty-to-Income Ratio, physical activity, energy intake, BMI and WC
  7. *Nontransformed LSMs were presented with p-values associated with the variables after log-transformation for normality. Health markers that were log-transformed include BMI, WC, TC, HDL-C, TG, CRP, and Insulin. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01