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Table 4 Association between total HEI-2010 score and Health Markers in U.S. adults (Age ≥ 20, N = 4097)

From: Healthy eating index versus alternate healthy index in relation to diabetes status and health markers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2007–2010

Health Markers (n) HEI-2010 Quartiles p trend
Quartile 1 (n = 982) Quartile 2 (n = 1066) Quartile 3 (n = 1014) Quartile 4 (n = 1035)
  LSM ± SE LSM ± SE LSM ± SE LSM ± SE  
aBMI (kg/m2) 4097 29.5 ± 0.3 29.5 ± 0.3 28.9 ± 0.2 28.3 ± 0.3 0.0041*
aWC (cm) 4019 101.1 ± 0.5 100.5 ± 0.6 99.3 ± 0.5 97.9 ± 0.6 0.0014*
aTotal cholesterol (mg/dl) 4070 201.0 ± 2.1 196.1 ± 1.6 194.7 ± 1.2 196.6 ± 1.5 0.0875*
bHDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 4070 51.7 ± 0.7 53.8 ± 0.6 52.4 ± 0.6 54.9 ± 0.5 0.0014*
aLDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 3990 120.7 ± 1.7 116.9 ± 1.5 115.5 ± 0.9 115.4 ± 1.2 0.0987
aTG (mg/dl) 4066 150.7 ± 4.9 130.2 ± 3.5 134.8 ± 4.3 129.5 ± 3.1 0.0001*
aTG / HDL cholesterol Ratio 4066 3.6 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.1 0.0002*
cCRP (mg/dl) 4086 0.5 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.03 0.1221*
cInsulin (uU/mL) 3958 13.8 ± 0.5 13.5 ± 0.4 13.5 ± 0.4 12.6 ± 0.3 0.2315*
cMean SBP (mm Hg) 3928 122.6 ± 0.5 122.2 ± 0.5 122.4 ± 0.6 120.9 ± 0.6 0.1905
cMean DBP (mm Hg) 3928 68.2 ± 0.5 69.0 ± 0.5 68.3 ± 0.5 69.0 ± 0.6 0.4356
aComorbidity Score 4097 2.2 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.06 1.9 ± 0.07 0.0167
  1. Values are least square means ± standard error of the mean (SE). Bonferroni correction (< 0.05/12 health markers), P < 0.004
  2. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, PIR, physical activity, and energy intake
  3. Highest total HEI-2010 score was compared to the lowest total HEI-2010 (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) to represent dietary quality. Mean blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) was calculated based on the average of the first three systolic BP readings of the participants while being examined at the MEC. The fourth reading was not included because of missing values. Co-morbidity score was calculated as the sum of self-reported presence of physician-diagnosed comorbidities that tend to co-occur with type 2 diabetes
  4. Abbreviations: HEI-2010 Healthy Eating Index 2010, LSM Least-Square Means, BMI Body Mass Index, WC Waist Circumference, TC Total Cholesterol, HDL-C High density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, LDL-C Low density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, CRP C-reactive protein
  5. bAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Poverty-to-Income Ratio, physical activity, energy intake, and BMI
  6. cAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, Poverty-to-Income Ratio, physical activity, energy intake, BMI and WC
  7. *Nontransformed LSMs were presented with p-values associated with the variables after log-transformation for normality. Health markers that were log-transformed include BMI, WC, TC, HDL-C, TG, CRP, and Insulin. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01