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Table 2 HEI-2010 components and total scores of U.S. adults (Age ≥ 20 years) by Diabetes Status

From: Healthy eating index versus alternate healthy index in relation to diabetes status and health markers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2007–2010

Component Criteria Maximum Score Value Diabetes Status ap-value
Minimum score Maximum score   Nondiabetes (n = 1436) Prediabetes (n = 1905) Diabetes (n = 715)
LSM ± SE LSM ± SE LSM ± SE
Adequacy
 Total fruit 0 ≥0.8 cups/1000 kcal 5 2.1 ± 0.07 2.2 ± 0.08 2.2 ± 0.1 0.6460
 Whole fruit 0 ≥0.4 cups/1000 kcal 5 0.7 ± 0.04 0.8 ± 0.07 0.8 ± 0.08 0.0554
 Total vegetables 0 ≥1.1 cups/1000 kcal 5 2.9 ± 0.07 3.0 ± 0.04 3.2 ± 0.07 0.1362
 Greens and beans 0 ≥0.2 cups/1000 kcal 5 1.3 ± 0.06 1.2 ± 0.07 1.3 ± 0.1 0.5413
 Whole grains 0 ≥1.5 oz./1000 10 2.5 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.1 2.7 ± 0.1 0.0693
 Dairy 0 ≥1.3 cups/1000 kcal 10 5.4 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.09 5.1 ± 0.2 0.1506
 Fatty acids (PUFAs + MUFAs)/
SFAs ≤1.2
(PUFAs + MUFAs)/
SFAs ≥2.5
10 4.9 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.2 0.6415
 Total protein foods 0 ≥2.5 oz./1000 kcal 5 4.2 ± 0.04 4.2 ± 0.04 4.4 ± 0.06 0.0008
 Seafood and Plant proteins 0 ≥0.8 oz./1000 kcal 5 2.2 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.08 1.9 ± 0.1 0.1646
Moderation
 Refined grains ≥ 4.3 oz./1000 kcal ≤ 1.8 oz./1000 kcal 10 5.9 ± 0.1 6.3 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.2 0.0122
 Sodium ≥ 2.0 g/1000 kcal ≤ 1.1 g/1000 kcal 10 4.2 ± 0.08 4.4 ± 0.07 3.5 ± 0.2 0.0006
bEmpty calories ≥ 50% of energy ≤ 19% of energy 20 11.1 ± 0.3 10.4 ± 0.3 12.5 ± 0.3 0.0002
 Total HEI-2010 score   100 47.5 ± 0.6 46.8 ± 0.7 48.8 ± 0.6 0.1110
  1. Values are least square means ± standard error of the mean (SE)
  2. All scoring criteria were calculated per 1000 kcal/d, except empty calories, which are calculated as % total energy. For adequacy components, higher intake of food/nutrient groups result in higher scores. For moderation components, lower intake of food/nutrient groups result in higher scores
  3. Abbreviations: HEI-2010 Healthy Eating Index 2010, LSM least square means, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, SFA saturated fatty acid
  4. aBonferroni correction (< 0.05/12 HEI-2010 components), P < 0.004
  5. bEmpty Calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars; threshold for counting alcohol is more than 13 g/1000 kcal
  6. Bold data indicate statistically different p < 0.05