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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the CACTI cohort

From: Dietary fiber intake and glycemic control: coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study

  Type 1 diabetes Non-diabetic control
Men (n = 251) Women (n = 320) p-value Men (n = 347) Women (n = 349) p-value
Age (years) 38.0 ± 9.0 36.0 ± 9.0 0.07 40.0 ± 9.0 38.0 ± 9.0 0.01
HbA1c (%) 7.9 ± 1.2 7.9 ± 1.3 0.75 5.6 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.4 < 0.0001
Met < 7% HbA1c goal (%) 18.7 22.0 0.67 N/A N/A N/A
Duration of diabetes (years) 24.0 ± 9.0 23.0 ± 9.0 0.18 N/A N/A N/A
Duration of follow-up (years) 6.2 ± 0.6 6.2 ± 0.5 0.23 6.1 ± 0.5 6.2 ± 0.6 0.25
BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 4.7 0.04 27.2 ± 4.1 25.1 ± 5.6 < 0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 90.8 ± 11.0 81.0 ± 12.0 < 0.0001 93.0 ± 12.0 79.0 ± 13.0 < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 122.0 ± 13.0 114.0 ± 14.0 < 0.0001 118.0 ± 11.0 111.0 ± 13.0 < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 80.0 ± 9.0 75.0 ± 8.0 < 0.0001 82.0 ± 8.0 76.0 ± 8.0 < 0.0001
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 199.0 ± 102.0 187.0 ± 93.0 0.14 93.0 ± 10.0 87.0 ± 9.0 < 0.0001
Plasma cholesterol (mg/dL) 175.0 ± 35.0 176.0 ± 33.0 0.81 198.0 ± 43.0 185.0 ± 34.0 < 0.0001
Plasma HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.0 ± 13.0 60.0 ± 17.0 < 0.0001 43.0 ± 11.0 58.0 ± 14.0 < 0.0001
Plasma triglycerides (mg/dL) 83.0 (62.0–114.0) 77.0 (62.0–103.0) 0.08 123.0 (89.0–181.0) 89.0 (66.0–124.0) < 0.0001
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1954.0 ± 625.0 1633.0 ± 561.0 < 0.0001 1992.0 ± 655.0 1655.0 ± 528.0 < 0.0001
Carbohydrate intake (% kcal/day) 44.0 (38.0–51.0) 46.0 (40.0–52.0) 0.04 47.0 (42.0–52.0) 48.0 (42.0–54.0) 0.04
Fat intake (% kcal/day) 36.0 (31.0–41.0) 35.0 (30.0–39.0) 0.08 34.0 (29.0–37.0) 33.0 (28.0–36.0) 0.06
Protein intake (% kcal/day) 18.0 (16.0–21.0) 19.0 (17.0–21.0) 0.004 18.0 (15.0–20.0) 19.0 (16.0–21.0) 0.0004
Total dietary fiber (g) 16.0 (12.0–22.0) 15.0 (11.0–21.0) 0.06 15.0 (11.0–21.0) 16.0 (11.0–21.0) 0.88
Physical activity (kJ/week) 7517 (3165–14,118) 5020 (1938–10,862) 0.32 6986 (3048–12,861) 6232 (2859–11,255) 0.21
  1. Data are presented as means ± SD and median (IQ range)
  2. P < 0.05 in bold; Comparison between men and women: t test for difference in means, χ2 test for difference in proportions, and Wilcoxon rank sum test for difference of continuous variables with skewed distributions