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Table 4 Relative importance of predictors of energy intake (kcal/meal); sensitivity analysis adjusting for energy misreportinga,b

From: Meal analysis for understanding eating behavior: meal- and participant-specific predictors for the variance in energy and macronutrient intake

Covariatesc Breakfast Lunch Afternoon snack Dinner
Beta-weight (95%CI)d Correlation (95%CI) Pratt Index (95%CI) Beta-weight (95%CI) Correlation (95%CI) Pratt Index (95%CI) Beta-weight (95%CI) Correlation (95%CI) Pratt Index (95%CI) Beta-weight (95%CI) Correlation (95%CI) Pratt Index (95%CI)
Intake-level covariates
 Week/weekend day (y/n) 0.11 (0.06;0.17) 0.12 (0.07;0.18) 27%e (9;49) 0.04 (− 0.01;0.08) 0.05 (0.00;0.10) 6% (0;25) 0.10 (0.05;0.15) 0.13 (0.08;0.18) 11% (3;23) −0.04 (− 0.09;0.01) −0.03 (− 0.07;0.02) 3% (0;17)
Season (winter/ summer) −0.04 (− 0.086;0.01) −0.04 (− 0.09;0.01) 3% (0;17) 0.01 (− 0.04;0.06) 0.00 (− 0.05;0.05) 0% (0;10) 0.04 (− 0.01;0.08) 0.03 (− 0.02;0.08) 1% (0;5) 0.04 (− 0.01;0.09) 0.04 (− 0.01;0.09) 5% (0;19)
Special day (y/n) 0.01 (− 0.06;0.07) 0.05 (− 0.01;0.11) 1% (− 2;14) 0.04 (− 0.01;0.09) 0.05 (− 0.00;0.10) 7% (0;29) 0.05 (− 0.00;0.10) 0.10 (0.04;0.15) 5% (0;12) 0.06 (0.01;0.11) 0.08 (0.04;0.13) 15% (1;36)
Prior interval (hours) − 0.02 (− 0.08;0.04) −0.01 (− 0.08;0.05) 1% (0;14) 0.06 (0.01;0.10) 0.07 (0.03;0.11) 14% (1;41) 0.17 (0.12;0.21) 0.21 (0.15;0.25) 29% (16;43) 0.07 (0.03;0.12) 0.09 (0.04;0.13) 20% (3;40)
Place of meal (ref: home)
 work −0.14 (−0.27;-0.02) −0.15 (− 0.28;-0.02) 41% (1;72) −0.14 (− 0.22;-0.06) −0.151 (− 0.225;-0.073) 75% (23;90) −0.21 (− 0.28;-0.14) −0.26 (− 0.32;-0.19) 45% (24;61) −0.08 (− 0.17;-0.01) −0.09 (− 0.17;− 0.01) 21% (0;55)
 restaurant 0.10 (0.06;0.15) 0.11 (0.07;0.16) 24% (6;50) -0.01 (−0.06;0.05) 0.03 (−0.03;0.08) 0% (− 1;14) 0.02 (− 0.04;0.07) 0.04 (− 0.02;0.09) 1% (0;6) 0.10 (0.06;0.15) 0.12 (0.07;0.16) 36% (12;57)
 other 0.04 (−0.00;0.09) 0.04 (−0.00;0.09) 4% (0;017) −0.02 (− 0.07;0.04) 0.01 (− 0.04;0.06) 0% (− 1;12) 0.08 (0.03;0.13) 0.13 (0.08;0.18) 9% (2;20) − 0.01 (− 0.08;0.06) 0.00 (− 0.07;0.07) 0% (0;17)
R-squared (95%CI) 0.05 (0.03;0.11) 0.03 (0.01;0.06) 0.12 (0.09;0.16) 0.03 (0.02;0.06)
Participant-level covariates
BMI (kg/m2) 0.00 (− 0.10;0.10) − 0.03 (− 0.13;0.07) 0% (− 1;5) 0.08 (− 0.06;0.23) −0.01 (− 0.14;0.12) 0% (− 1;6) 0.09 (− 0.04;0.22) −0.04 (− 0.17;0.09) 0% (− 2;8) 0.18 (0.07;0.29) 0.09 (− 0.02;0.20) 4% (0;12)
Age (years) 0.08 (− 0.05;0.21) 0.21 (0.12;0.29) 7% (− 3;19) 0.02 (− 0.19;0.19) 0.26 (0.10;0.40) 1% (− 6;16) − 0.10 (− 0.28;0.09) 0.02 (− 0.11;0.16) 0% (− 6;10) − 0.22 (− 0.36;-0.07) −0.05 (− 0.15;0.06) 2% (− 2;10)
Sex (M/W) − 0.31 (− 0.41;-0.22) −0.35 (− 0.43;-0.28) 44% (23;59) −0.38 (− 0.57;-0.23) −0.38 (− 0.56;-0.25) 35% (14;51) −0.23 (− 0.36;-0.11) −0.23 (− 0.35;-0.12) 23% (5;39) −0.41 (− 0.50;-0.33) −0.48 (− 0.57;-0.40) 48% (32;59)
Education level (ref. current/no training)
 technical college −0.01 (− 0.10;0.08) −0.07 (− 0.15;0.020) 0% (− 1;6) −0.03 (− 0.16;0.11) −0.05 (− 0.20;0.09) 0% (− 1;5) 0.08 (− 0.06;0.21) −0.01 (− 0.14;0.11) 0% (− 2;8) 0.03 (− 0.07;0.14) −0.10 (− 0.20;-0.00) 0% (− 2;3)
 university − 0.01 (− 0.11;0.08) 0.06 (− 0.03;0.14) 0% (− 1;4) − 0.08 (− 0.23;0.06) −0.02 (− 0.15;0.13) 0% (− 1;6) 0.04 (− 0.10;0.18) 0.08 (− 0.05;0.20) 1% (− 1;11) 0.08 (− 0.04;0.19) 0.15 (0.05;0.26) 3% (− 1;11)
Occupation (ref. no job/ retired)f
 full time 0.05 (− 0.11;0.20) − 0.05 (− 0.15;0.06) 0% (− 3;6) −0.033 (− 0.233;0.177) −0.166 (− 0.359;0.013) 1% (− 3;14) 0.05 (− 0.16;0.26) 0.02 (− 0.14;0.17) 1% (− 2;13) −0.00 (− 0.15;0.14) 0.07 (− 0.04;0.18) 0% (− 2;4)
 part time/hourly −0.08 (− 0.19;0.04) −0.17 (− 0.28;-0.05) 5% (− 1;17) 0.017 (− 0.15;0.175) −0.061 (− 0.225;0.095) 0% (−1;7) 0.03 (− 0.08;0.15) −0.00 (− 0.12;0.10) 0% (− 1;6) 0.05 (− 0.05;0.15) 0.02 (− 0.09;0.12) 0% (0;4)
Physical activity (h/week) 0.05 (− 0.03;0.13) 0.05 (− 0.03;0.12) 1% (0;6) 0.145 (0.013;0.280) 0.162 (0.041;0.290) 6% (0;14) 0.02 (− 0.09;0.12) − 0.01 (− 0.12;0.10) 0% (0;5) 0.05 (− 0.04;0.13) −0.04 (− 0.13;0.06) 0% (−1;2)
Smoking status (ref. never smoker)
 current smoker 0.27 (0.06;0.45) 0.04 (−0.05;0.13) 4% (−4;17) 0.186 (−0.064;0.449) 0.076 (− 0.057;0.202) 3% (−1;15) 0.18 (− 0.03;0.40) 0.12 (0.00;0.24) 9% (−1;29) 0.03 (− 0.17;0.23) −0.17 (− 0.27;-0.07) 0% (− 7;9)
 former smoker 0.20 (0.01;0.40) 0.06 (− 0.03;0.15) 5% (− 1;18) 0.067 (− 0.187;0.351) −0.014 (− 0.143;0.130) 0% (− 2;7) 0.02 (− 0.21;0.24) −0.08 (− 0.20;0.04) 0% (−6;12) 0.09 (− 0.10;0.28) 0.18 (0.07;0.28) 4% (− 3;15)
Energy misreporting
 EI/TEE < 0.81 −0.15 (− 0.25;-0.07) −0.26 (− 0.35;-0.18) 16% (5;31) −0.372 (− 0.539;-0.227) −0.462 (− 0.603;-0.343) 41% (18;58) −0.37 (− 0.52;-0.25) −0.38 (− 0.53;-0.26) 61% (30;74) −0.30 (− 0.42;-0.19) −0.31 (− 0.41;-0.21) 23% (10;35)
 EI/TEE > 1.19 0.18 (0.11;0.25) 0.27 (0.20;0.33) 19% (8;30) 0.159 (0.058;0.278) 0.311 (0.212;0.440) 12% (3;22) 0.10 (−0.03;0.23) 0.19 (0.05;0.32) 8% (−1;24) 0.24 (0.16;0.31) 0.31 (0.23;0.38) 18% (9;27)
R-squared (95%CI) 0.25 (0.20;0.36) 0.42 (0.31;0.78) 0.23 (0.16;0.44) 0.41 (0.34;0.56)
  1. an = 682 participants with activity sensor data
  2. bPratt Index, in % contribution to the variance explained by the model (R2). Might not add up to 100% due to rounding errors from parameter estimates
  3. cfor dichotomous variables, the information shown is for the underlined category (reference category not underlined)
  4. dall 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) – for beta-weights, correlations, r-squared, and Pratt Index – are bootstrap confidence intervals based on 1000 samples
  5. ebold numbers indicate covariates accounting for > 10% of the explained variance
  6. ffull time: > 35 h/week; part time/hourly: < 35 h/week