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Table 3 Grain legumes: nutrient composition per 100 gram edible portion compared with staple food maizea, percent contribution of all legumes in current diet to nutrient intakes per target group, and comparison of nutrient intakes of children not consuming legumes and children consuming legumes

From: Current and potential role of grain legumes on protein and micronutrient adequacy of the diet of rural Ghanaian infants and young children: using linear programming

  Soybean flour Groundnut paste Cowpea, whole Maize 6-8 BF n=97 9-11 BF n=97 12-23 BF n=114 12-23 NBF n=29 Children, not consumed legumes n=135 Children, consumed legumes n=202
content per 100 gram edible portion legume contribution: mean % ± standard deviation median intake [25th, 75th percentile]
Daily legume intakeb (g)      5.2 ± 22.3 5.5 ± 11.3 17.0 ± 30.3 35.2 ± 36.9 - 19.8 ± 31.3
Energy (kcal) 414 578 320 349 2.0 ± 7.4 2.7 ± 5.2 5.5 ± 7.2 11.7 ± 10.2 596 [521, 688] 893 [726, 1142]*
Fat (g) 15.9 45.9 1.5 4.1 1.5 ± 5.1 2.8 ± 5.6 7.6 ± 9.8 23.0 ± 23.9 27 [26, 29] 33 [28, 39]*
Protein (g) 34.7 22.4 19.2 9.2 4.1 ± 12.7 5.6 ± 10.4 11.0 ± 12.8 20.3 ± 16.4 11 [10, 14] 21 [15, 28]*
 Histidine (g) 0.8 0.5 0.63 0.25 3.8 ± 12.1 5.3 ± 9.9 10.7 ± 12.7 20.4 ± 17.0 300 [262, 364] 539 [404, 726]*
 Isoleucine (g) 1.6 1.1 0.84 0.34 3.7 ± 11.4 4.9 ± 8.8 10.6 ± 12.0 22.0 ± 17.2 441 [412, 442] 370 [369, 414]*
 Leucine (g) 2.9 1.4 1.54 1.12 3.1 ± 10.4 4.1 ± 8.0 7.6 ± 9.8 14.8 ± 12.6 1264 [1068, 1575] 2113 [1068, 1575]*
 Lysine (g) 2.7 0.8 1.36 0.24 4.0 ± 12.7 4.8 ± 9.2 11.3 ± 13.7 25.9 ± 21.6 674 [622, 754] 942 [779, 1192]*
 SAA (g) 1.1 0.6 0.40 0.34 3.0 ± 10.0 3.7 ± 7.1 7.1 ± 8.8 13.8 ± 11.9 426 [375, 525] 745 [565, 1030]*
 AAA (g) 2.7 2.1 1.71 0.81 3.8 ± 11.9 5.4 ± 9.8 11.2 ± 12.8 21.4 ± 17.4 672 [628, 673] 563 [561, 629]*
 Threonine (g) 1.2 0.6 0.79 0.29 3.3 ± 10.9 4.2 ± 8.0 9.0 ± 11.3 19.0 ± 16.4 513 [452, 588] 804 [624, 1044]*
 Tryptophan (g) 0.6 0.2 0.17 0.06 3.1 ± 9.9 3.5 ± 6.5 8.9 ± 10.6 22.4 ± 18.6 187 [174, 210] 251 [212, 303]*
 Valine (g) 1.7 0.9 1.02 0.50 3.4 ± 11.2 4.4 ± 8.5 8.8 ± 10.6 17.5 ± 14.6 665 [578, 806] 1151 [865, 1511]*
Calcium (mg) 185 61 61 19 1.9 ± 7.7 1.3 ± 2.6 4.3 ± 7.7 12.0 ± 15.2 194 [187, 223] 230 [200, 273]*
Folate (μg DFE) 133 88 143 18.2 4.1 ± 13.8 5.1 ± 9.6 12.3 ± 15.6 24.9 ± 22.3 63 [60, 69] 91 [76, 121]*
Iron (mg) 5.2 3.9 6.8 2.9 5.2 ± 17.3 7.1 ± 16.1 9.5 ± 14.2 12.3 ± 13.3 2.0 [1.5, 3.0] 5.6 [3.5, 8.5]*
Niacin (mg) 1.2 14.7 1.8 1.9 3.8 ± 12.6 7.2 ± 12.7 14.3 ± 15.9 20.8 ± 16.6 1.9 [1.5, 2.4] 4.7 [3.2, 6.7]*
Zinc (mg) 4.3 2.0 4.1 1.55 4.5 ± 15.2 5.5 ± 11.6 9.0 ± 13.1 15.4 ± 14.5 1.6 [1.4, 2.1] 3.2 [2.3, 4.5]*
  1. 6-8 BF = breastfed children of 6-8 months, 9-11 BF = breastfed children of 9-11 months, 12-23 BF = breastfed children of 12-23 months, 12-23 NBF = non-breastfed children of 12-23 months
  2. SAA = sulphur-containing amino acids (methionine and cystine); AAA = aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine)
  3. Bold values = more than 1.5 times higher nutrient content compared with maize; average above 10% contribution to nutrient intake; and nutrient intakes lower among children consuming legumes compared to children not consuming legumes
  4. *P <0.05 (comparing nutrient intakes of children who did and did not consume legumes). The same comparison separately for each age group and for breastfed and non-breastfed showed similar results
  5. aValues are from West African Food Composition Table (2012) with retention factors applied: for soybean and cowpea ‘legumes 2-2,5 hours boiled and water used’, for groundnut ‘nuts boiled’, and for maize ‘cereal boiled’ (USDA). For essential amino acids content, the proportion of amino acids of protein from comparable foods from Indian Food Composition Tables (2017) together with protein content from WAFCT were used
  6. bDaily legume intake in median ± SD, for all children