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Table 2 Daily nutrient intake of children 6 to 23 months old, recommended daily requirements and percent below daily requirements, assuming average breastmilk intake and reference weights

From: Current and potential role of grain legumes on protein and micronutrient adequacy of the diet of rural Ghanaian infants and young children: using linear programming

  6-8 BF 9-11 BF 12-23 BF 12-23 NBF
n=97 n=97 n=114 n=29
Median intake [25th, 75th percentile], recommended daily requirementsa, % below daily requirementsb
Energy (kcal) 601 [525, 721] 614 53, 28 c 717 [587, 887] 695 49, 24 c 897 [725, 1168] 886 47, 22 c 983 [773, 1284] 886 38, 24c
Fat (g) 28 [27, 31] 20.5 0 29 [27, 36] 23.2 0 33 [28, 40] 29.5 31 22 [13, 29] 29.5 76
Protein (g) 11 [10, 15] 9.1 14 14 [11, 20] 10.3 12 21 [15, 28] 11.1 11 27 [20, 35] 11.1 0
Histidine (mg) 308 [260, 383] 182 0 369 [300, 520] 196 0 545 [388, 727] 199 1 695 [551, 918] 199 0
1Isoleucine (mg) 442 [442, 442] 291 0 413 [412, 414] 324 0 369 [368, 370] 343 0 3 [2, 5] 343 100
Leucine (mg) 1296 [1069, 1606] 601 0 1467 [1243, 2020] 664 0 2182 [1630, 2875] 697 0 2669 [1921, 3461] 697 0
Lysine (mg) 690 [628, 791] 519 0 762 [659, 947] 561 1 991 [787, 1227] 575 5 991 [693, 1302] 575 17
SAA (mg) 441 [379, 551] 255 0 522 [414, 714] 278 0 756 [572, 1010] 288 1 992 [653, 1311] 288 0
AAA (mg) 673 [673, 673] 473 0 628 [628, 629] 504 0 561 [561, 562] 509 0 3 [2, 5] 509 100
Threonine (mg) 518 [460, 627] 282 0 590 [500, 785] 298 0 827 [631, 1049] 299 0 923 [697, 1265] 299 0
Tryptophan (mg) 180 [192, 227] 77 0 212 [185, 258] 82 0 257 [212, 313] 82 0 226 [154, 302] 82 0
Valine (mg) 680 [579, 861] 391 0 782 [650, 1094] 437 0 1174 [891, 1520] 465 2 1377 [1063, 1950] 465 0
Calcium (mg) 202 [193, 239] 400 n/a 208 [187, 258] 400 n/a 227 [199, 280] 500 95 158 [95, 305] 500 86
Folate (μg DFE) 65 [61, 75] 80 51 72 [63, 91] 80 35 92 [75, 119] 150 76 81 [59, 139] 150 66
Iron (mg) 2 [1, 3] 18.6 91 3 [2, 5] 18.6 91 5 [3, 8] 11.6 17 9 [7, 13] 0 66
Niacin (mg) 1.9 [1.6, 3.1] 4 n/a 2.7 [1.9, 4.0] 4 n/a 4.9 [3.2, 6.8] 6 47 6.8 [4.7, 10.3] 6 21
Riboflavin (mg) 0.3 [0.3, 0.4] 0.4 n/a 0.3 [0.3, 0.4] 0.4 n/a 0.4 [0.3, 0.6] 0.5 41 0.5 [0.3, 0.7] 0.5 38
Thiamine (mg) 0.3 [0.3, 0.4] 0.3 n/a 0.4 [0.3, 0.5] 0.3 n/a 0.6 [0.4, 0.9] 0.5 18 0.9 [0.7, 1.1] 0.5 0
Vitamin A (μg RAE) 331 [331, 344] 400 n/a 322 [309, 354] 400 n/a 300 [287, 335] 400 24 60 [28, 142] 400 86
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.2 [0.2, 0.4] 0.3 n/a 0.3 [0.2, 0.5] 0.3 n/a 0.6 [0.4, 0.9] 0.5 25 1.0 [0.7, 1.4] 0.5 3
Vitamin B12 (μg) 0.7 [0.7, 0.7] 0.7 n/a 0.6 [0.6, 0.7] 0.7 n/a 0.6 [0.6, 0.6] 0.9 84 0.1 [0.0, 0.3] 0.9 86
Vitamin C (mg) 27 [27, 30] 30 n/a 28 [25, 32] 30 n/a 28 [25, 32] 30 23 12 [5, 18] 30 90
Zinc (mg) 1.6 [1.3, 2.2] 5 91 2.1 [1.6, 3.0] 5 91 3.2 [2.3, 4.5] 3 13 4.4 [3.3, 6.7] 0 0
  1. 6-8 BF = breastfed children of 6-8 months, 9-11 BF = breastfed children of 9-11 months, 12-23 BF = breastfed children of 12-23 months, 12-23 NBF = non-breastfed children of 12-23 months
  2. SAA = sulphur-containing amino acids (methionine and cystine); AAA = aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine). Bold values = percentages higher than 45
  3. aRecommended daily requirements (used in Optifood analyses): for energy based on average reference body weight for age group and algorithm for estimating energy requirements (Kcal/kg) (FAO, 2004); for fat based on the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (ADMR) of 30% of daily energy requirements (FAO, 2010); for protein based on average reference body weight for age group and algorithm for estimating protein requirement (g/kg) using safe intakes (FAO, 2007); for essential amino acids based on daily total protein requirements and algorithms for each essential amino acid requirements (mg/g protein) using safe intakes (WHO, 2007); for micronutrients RNIs from FAO/WHO (2004)
  4. bPercent below daily requirements: for energy and macronutrients requirements used as described above; for micronutrients based on EARs calculated from RNIs (FAO/WHO 2004), using conversion factors (Allen, et al., 2006) except for zinc based on EAR from iZiNCG (2004) assuming unrefined cereal-based diets and for iron based on RNI from FAO/WHO (2004) assuming 5% bioavailability, except for calcium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and Vitamin C for children 6 to 11 months for whom EARs are not available (see Additional files 1 and 2 for overview of exact values used)
  5. cPercent of children below daily requirements based on actual weight