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Table 4 Prevalence of growth restriction (weight-for-height z-score < −2 standard deviations) according to feeding practices of infants with microcephaly aged 12–23 months attending IFF/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June–December 2017

From: Infants with microcephaly due to ZIKA virus exposure: nutritional status and food practices

  Growth Restriction
Variables and Categories n (%) N (%)
yes no
Consumption of iron-rich foodsa
 No 8 12.3 4 (50) 4 (50)
 Yes 57 87.7 41 (73.2) 15 (26.8)
Consumption of vitamin A-rich foodsb
 No 23 37 7 (30.4) 16 (69.6)
 Yes 39 63 11 (28.2) 28 (71.8)
Minimum dietary diversityc
 No 47 72.3 16 (34) 31 (66)
 Yes 18 27.7 3 (17.6) 14 (82.4)
Continuous breastfeeding
 No 53 81.5 16 (30.8) 36 (69.2)
 Yes 12 18.5 3 (25) 9 (75)
Consumption of ultra-processed foodsd
 No 31 47.7 7 (23.3) 23 (76.7)
 Yes 34 52.3 12 (35.3) 22 (64.7)
Number of daily meals
 <  6 25 38.5 7 (28) 18 (72)
 ≥ 6 40 61.5 12 (30.8) 27 (69.2)
Number of meals with fruits
 <  2 45 69.2 15 (33.3) 30 (66.7)
 ≥ 2 20 30.8 4 (21.1) 15 (78.9)
Number of salty meals
 <  2 14 21.5 4 (28.6) 10 (71.4)
 ≥ 2 51 78.5 15 (30) 35 (70)
Number of dairy meals
 ≤ 2 16 24.6 3 (18.8) 13 (81.2)
 > 2 49 75.4 16 (33.3) 32 (66.7)
Number of farinaceous meals
 ≥ 2 47 72 17 (37) 29 (63)
 <  2 18 28 2 (11.1) 16 (88.9)
Food administration route
 Oral 60 92.3 18 (30.5) 41 (69.5)
 Gastrostomy 5 7.7 1 (20) 4 (80)
Report of choking
 No 34 52.3 9 (26.5) 25 (73.5)
 Yes 31 47.7 10 (33.3) 20 (66.7)
Report of reflux
 No 50 77 12 (24.5) 37 (75.5)
 Yes 15 23 7 (46.7) 8 (53.3)
Adequate energy intakee
 Inadequate 19 32 8 (42.1) 11 (57.9)
 Adequate or excessive 41 68 11 (26.8) 30 (73.2)
Adequate protein intakef
 Adequate 55 91.7 18 (32.7) 37 (67.3)
 Excessive 5 8.3 1 (20) 4 (80)
Adequate lipid intakef
 Deficient 29 48.3 8 (27.6) 21 (72.4)
 Adequate 27 45 10 (37) 17 (63)
 Excessive 4 6.7 1 (25) 3 (75)
Adequate carbohydrate intakef
 Deficient 7 11.7 2 (28.6) 5 (71.4)
 Adequate 46 76.6 16 (34.8) 30 (65.2)
 Excessive 7 11.7 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7)
  1. aConsumption of meat (beef, chicken, pork, fish or other)/liver/egg/beans/lentils
  2. bConsumption of papaya/mango/pitanga/pequi/buriti/liver/pumpkin/carrot/broccoli/cabbage
  3. cConsumption of two salty meals containing one food from each group (cereals or tubers, vegetables, meat or eggs, legumes) and consumption of fruits and milk (including maternal) in snacks
  4. dIngestion of sugar/chocolate milk/margarine/curd cheese/coffee/canned food/fried food/soft drinks/mate, natural guaraná/candies/cookies/salty snacks/processed juices/jellies/ice cream/popsicles, cakes/pies and other sweets
  5. eAdequate energy intake: attendance of 90–110% of the estimated energy expenditure from Culley’s formula, 1969, deficient and excessive: below and above this percentage, respectively
  6. fThe following energy distribution of macronutrients against total energy intake was considered adequate: 5–20% of total calories from proteins; 45–65% from carbohydrates and 30–40% from lipids. Intake values below and above these percentages were classified as deficient and excessive, respectively