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Table 3 Prevalence of growth restriction (weight-for-height z-score < − 2 standard deviations) according to the history of feeding practices of infants with microcephaly attending IFF/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June–December 2017

From: Infants with microcephaly due to ZIKA virus exposure: nutritional status and food practices

  Growth Restriction
Variable and Categories n % N (%)
Yes No
Exclusive breastfeeding time
 <  6 months 50 78.1 15 (30) 35 (70)
 ≥ 6 months 14 21.9 4 (30.8) 9 (69.2)
Breastfeeding time
 <  12 months 47 74.6 14 (30.4) 32 (69.6)
 ≥ 12 months 16 25.4 5 (31.3) 11 (68.8)
Age at introduction of fruit
 <  6 months 29 46.8 12 (41.4) 17 (56.6)
 ≥ 6 months 33 53.2 6 (18.8) 26 (81.2)
Age at introduction of 1st salty baby food
 <  6 months 24 38.7 8 (33.3) 16 (66.7)
 ≥ 6 months 38 61.3 10 (73) 27 (27)
Age at introduction of 2nd salty baby food
 <  7 months 19 31.7 8 (42.1) 11 (57.9)
 ≥ 7 months 38 63.3 9 (23.7) 29 (76.3)
 Salty baby food not yet introduced in feeding 3 5 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7)
Consistency of first fruits
 Mashed and/or scraped 42 70 14 (34.1) 27 (65.9)
 Crushed and/or sieved 18 30 3 (16.7) 15 (83.3)
Consistency of first salty baby food
 Mashed 29 48.3 7 (25) 21 (75)
 Crushed and/or sieved 31 51.7 9 (29) 22 (71)
Introduction of sugar before 2 years
 No 17 27 1 (5.9) 16 (94.1)
 Yes 46 73 17 (37.8) 28 (62.2)
Introduction of soft drinks and/or processed juice
 No 46 74.2 13 (28.9) 32 (71.1)
 Yes 16 25.8 5 (31.3) 11 (68.8)
Age at introduction of non-maternal milk
 <  12 months 59 95.2 16 (27.6) 42 (72.4)
 ≥ 12 months 3 4.8 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3)