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Table 2 Contribution of the different food groups to daily intake and environmental impact in the NQplus Study, using FFQ and 24-h recall

From: FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact

Food groups 24-h Recall FFQ
g/d (%) E%d (%) GHGE (%) FE (%) LU (%) pReCiPe (%) g/d (%) E%d (%) GHGE (%) FE (%) LU (%) pReCiPe (%)
Potatoes 2.5 4.1 1.7 3.0 2.1 2.1 3.3 3.9 2.0 3.5 2.5 2.5
Cereals, cereal products
 Bread products 5.2 18.1 3.7 5.5 4.4 4.3 5.5 15.2 3.4 5.1 4.3 4.1
 Cake, Biscuits 1.5 7.4 2.6 2.8 3.1 2.9 1.5 6.2 2.1 2.5 2.9 2.5
 Pasta,rice,couscous 2.0 5.4 1.8 1.8 2.9 2.3 3.0 5.5 2.7 2.2 3.7 3.1
 Vegetables 5.1 1.9 5.1 8.0 1.9 4.3 6.9 2.3 5.4 9.1 2.0 4.6
 Legumes 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.4 0.6
 Fruit 5.7 5.1 3.8 5.1 1.9 3.3 8.0 5.4 4.9 6.7 2.4 4.2
 Nuts and seeds 0.4 3.3 0.6 0.6 2.3 1.4 0.6 4.4 0.9 0.9 3.3 1.9
Dairy
 Cheese 1.2 5.8 8.7 4.7 5.6 6.6 1.3 4.8 8.4 4.5 5.3 6.4
 Milka 6.1 4.2 5.9 4.9 4.0 4.9 7.8 4.1 6.8 5.5 4.5 5.6
 Milk-based dessertsb 4.4 4.7 5.4 4.3 3.3 4.3 5.4 4.8 5.8 4.7 3.5 4.6
Meat
 Non-processedc 1.4 3.1 15.7 9.4 16.9 15.0 1.6 2.8 18.6 9.8 20.5 17.8
 Processedd 1.7 5.5 14.9 8.8 14.3 13.6 1.4 3.7 9.5 6.2 8.8 8.6
 Fish 0.7 1.7 2.9 4.9 1.1 2.5 0.7 1.2 3.0 5.1 0.6 2.3
 Eggs 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.6
Vegetarian products
 Soy drink, dessertse 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
 Meat replacers 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3
 Fats, Oils, Sauces 1.1 6.4 2.5 2.2 4.3 3.2 1.8 10.1 3.2 3.3 7.4 5.0
 Sugar, Sweetsf 0.9 5.6 1.1 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.8 7.5 3.4 2.6 3.5 3.3
 Snacks 0.5 2.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.3 5.7 2.9 3.4 4.4 3.6
 Soup, Composite dishes 4.0 4.4 7.8 7.3 12.3 9.6 2.7 3.3 3.1 1.8 3.7 3.3
Beverages
 Non-alcoholic 48.0 2.8 7.9 13.6 8.3 9.1 40.0 4.7 9.9 16.4 13.3 12.5
 Alcoholic 6.2 5.6 4.5 7.3 6.0 5.6 3.7 2.2 1.6 2.6 1.0 1.5
  1. DHD15, Dutch Healthy Diet Index 15; NRD7.3, Nutrient Rich Diet score 7.3; GHGE, greenhouse gas emissions; FE, fossil energy use; LU, land use; pReCiPe, a weighted summary score for GHGE, FE, and LU
  2. a milk: milk, milk beverages (chocolate milk) and coffee milk b milk-based desserts: all kind of yoghurts, creams, and milk-based puddings and dessert c non-processed meat: beef, pork, and chicken d processed meat: meat products as sandwich filling, ham, ready-to-eat minced meat, sausages, organ meat and miscellaneous types e soy drinks, desserts: soy-based drinks, yoghurts, puddings and creams f Sugar, sweets: sugar, candy, sweet and savoury sandwich filling like jams, honey, chocolate spread, peanut butter