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Table 2 Differences between children’s dietary intakes measured via DSQ and ASA24-Kids, Healthy Communities Study, USA, 2013–2015

From: Comparison of the NHANES dietary screener questionnaire to the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall for Children in the Healthy Communities Study

  DSQ ASA24-Kids Mean difference between dietary intakes as measured by DSQ and ASA24-Kids
Food Group/ Nutrient Mean ± SD Median Mean ± SD Median Mean Differencea Percent Changeb Paired t-test test statistic P-value
1. Total added sugars (tsp/day)
All (n = 649) 19.0 ± 7.4 17.2 12.2 ± 8.3 10.7 − 6.8 − 55.7% − 17.8 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 20.1 ± 7.8 18.2 13.0 ± 8.7 11.3 − 7.1 − 54.6% − 12.3 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 18.3 ± 5.0 17.1 11.0 ± 6.7 9.4 − 7.2 − 66.4% − 11.0 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 98) 19.6 ± 8.3 17.6 13.8 ± 8.1 13.3 − 5.7 − 42.0% − 5.0 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 87) 23.5 ± 9.7 20.8 15.2 ± 11.3 12.8 − 8.3 − 54.6% − 6.3 < 0.01
Female (n = 328) 17.9 ± 6.8 16.3 11.3 ± 7.8 10.3 − 6.6 − 58.4% − 12.8 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 131) 16.0 ± 3.9 15.1 10.6 ± 6.3 10.0 − 5.5 − 50.9% − 9.2 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 112) 18.2 ± 5.2 17.2 12.8 ± 9.1 10.9 − 5.5 − 42.2% − 5.6 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 85) 20.3 ± 10.4 17.5 10.6 ± 7.9 9.8 −9.7 − 91.5% −8.6 < 0.01
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 363) 18.9 ± 7.6 17.1 12.0 ± 8.1 10.6 − 6.9 − 57.5% − 13.5 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 104) 18.5 ± 5.9 17.2 12.0 ± 8.8 10.9 − 6.5 − 54.2% − 6.8 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 177) 19.4 ± 7.8 17.5 12.7 ± 8.7 10.9 − 6.7 − 52.8% − 9.0 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 357) 18.3 ± 6.1 17.0 12.8 ± 8.3 11.1 −5.5 − 43.0% − 11.8 < 0.01
 African American (n = 135) 22.9 ± 11.1 19.8 12.8 ± 9.2 11.0 −10.1 −78.9% − 8.7 < 0.01
 Other (n = 66) 17.1 ± 4.2 16.3 11.5 ± 6.7 10.7 −5.6 − 48.7% − 6.3 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 262) 18.4 ± 5.8 17.2 11.1 ± 7.5 10.2 −7.4 − 65.8% −15.1 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 371) 19.2 ± 7.9 17.1 13.0 ± 8.8 11.1 −6.2 − 47.7% −11.3 < 0.01
2. Added sugars from sugar sweetened beverages (tsp/day)
All (n = 652) 7.1 ± 4.8 5.6 4.9 ± 5.4 3.6 − 2.1 − 44.9% − 9.7 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 7.4 ± 3.8 6.3 5.4 ± 5.9 4.0 −1.9 − 37.0% −6.9 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 6.1 ± 2.7 5.2 4.0 ± 3.6 3.4 − 2.1 −52.5% −6.5 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 98) 6.6 ± 3.2 5.6 5.6 ± 5.6 3.8 −1.0 − 17.9% − 2.1 0.04
 12-15y (n = 87) 10.3 ± 4.4 8.8 7.5 ± 8.2 5.6 − 2.8 − 37.3% − 3.9 < 0.01
Female (n = 331) 6.8 ± 5.5 4.9 4.4 ± 4.9 3.2 −2.3 −54.5% −6.9 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 132) 5.3 ± 2.7 4.3 3.8 ± 3.7 2.8 −1.5 − 39.5% −4.5 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 112) 6.0 ± 2.9 4.7 5.1 ± 5.3 4.0 − 0.8 −17.6% − 1.6 0.11
 12-15y (n = 87) 10.0 ± 8.9 6.8 4.5 ± 5.8 3.2 −5.5 − 122.2% −6.2 < 0.01
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 365) 6.8 ± 4.4 5.4 4.8 ± 5.6 3.3 − 2.1 −41.7% −6.7 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 104) 7.0 ± 3.7 5.8 4.4 ± 4.5 3.6 − 2.5 − 59.1% − 5.5 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 178) 7.7 ± 5.9 5.8 5.7 ± 5.6 4.5 − 2.1 − 35.1% − 4.8 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 358) 6.6 ± 4.2 5.4 5.0 ± 5.6 3.5 − 1.6 − 32.0% − 5.7 < 0.01
 African American (n = 136) 9.3 ± 6.6 7.4 5.4 ± 5.3 4.3 − 3.9 − 72.2% − 6.2 < 0.01
 Other (n = 67) 6.5 ± 3.8 5.3 4.7 ± 4.3 4.7 − 1.8 − 38.3% − 2.9 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 262) 6.7 ± 4.2 5.7 4.7 ± 5.1 3.6 −2.0 − 42.6% − 6.4 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 374) 7.2 ± 4.6 5.5 5.2 ± 5.7 3.7 − 2.1 − 38.5% − 7.2 < 0.01
3. Fruits and vegetables (cup equivalents/day)
All (n = 647) 2.5 ± 0.9 2.3 2.1 ± 1.4 1.9 − 0.4 − 19.0% − 7.2 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 2.7 ± 1.0 2.4 2.1 ± 1.4 1.8 − 0.6 −28.6% − 7.6 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.4 2.0 ± 1.3 1.9 − 0.5 −25.0% −4.0 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 98) 2.7 ± 1.0 2.4 2.2 ± 1.6 1.7 − 0.5 − 22.7% − 3.2 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 87) 3.0 ± 1.1 2.7 2.0 ± 1.4 1.8 − 1.0 − 50.0% −6.4 < 0.01
Female (n = 326) 2.3 ± 0.7 2.2 2.1 ± 1.3 1.9 − 0.2 − 9.5% − 2.4 0.02
 4-8y (n = 130) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.3 2.1 ± 1.3 1.8 − 0.3 − 14.3% −2.6 0.01
 9-11y (n = 111) 2.3 ± 0.6 2.2 2.2 ± 1.2 2.2 − 0.1 −4.5% − 0.9 0.36
 12-15y (n = 85) 2.2 ± 0.7 2.0 2.1 ± 1.6 1.8 − 0.1 −4.8% − 0.6 0.55
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 363) 2.6 ± 0.9 2.3 2.1 ± 1.4 1.9 − 0.4 − 23.8% − 5.8 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 104) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 2.0 ± 1.3 1.8 − 0.5 − 25.0% − 3.5 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 175) 2.4 ± 0.8 2.2 2.0 ± 1.3 1.8 − 0.3 − 20.0% − 3.1 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 355) 2.6 ± 0.9 2.4 2.1 ± 1.3 1.9 − 0.5 − 23.8% − 6.5 < 0.01
 African American (n = 134) 2.3 ± 0.7 2.1 1.9 ± 1.2 1.7 −0.4 − 21.1% − 3.0 < 0.01
 Other (n = 67) 2.6 ± 0.9 2.3 2.1 ± 1.4 1.9 − 0.6 − 23.8% − 3.3 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 279) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 2.1 ± 1.4 1.9 −0.3 − 19.0% − 3.5 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 373) 2.5 ± 0.9 2.3 2.1 ± 1.3 1.8 − 0.5 −19.0% − 6.5 < 0.01
4. Whole grains (oz equivalents/day)
All (n = 652) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.3 −0.2 − 40.0% − 7.1 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 322) 0.8 ± 0.5 0.7 0.5 ± 0.8 0.3 −0.2 − 60.0% − 5.2 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.8 ± 0.4 0.7 0.5 ± 0.6 0.3 −0.2 −60.0% − 4.3 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 99) 0.8 ± 0.6 0.7 0.6 ± 1.0 0.3 −0.2 − 33.3% − 2.0 0.05
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.7 ± 0.3 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.2 −0.2 − 40.0% − 3.3 < 0.01
Female (n = 330) 0.6 ± 0.4 0.5 0.4 ± 0.6 0.2 − 0.2 − 50.0% − 4.9 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 132) 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.3 −0.1 −20.0% −1.2 0.22
 9-11y (n = 111) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.4 ± 0.4 0.2 −0.3 −75.0% − 5.5 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.6 ± 0.5 0.5 0.4 ± 0.6 0.1 −0.2 −50.0% −2.8 0.01
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 364) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.3 −0.2 − 40.0% − 5.4 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 105) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.6 0.3 − 0.2 − 40.0% − 3.2 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 178) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.5 0.5 ± 0.7 0.2 − 0.2 − 40.0% − 3.1 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 358) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.3 − 0.2 − 40.0% −4.5 < 0.01
 African American (n = 135) 0.7 ± 0.5 0.6 0.4 ± 0.5 0.2 − 0.4 − 75.0% − 6.5 < 0.01
 Other (n = 67) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.6 ± 0.6 0.3 −0.1 −16.7% − 1.6 0.12
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 264) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.7 0.2 −0.2 −40.0% −4.5 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 372) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.6 0.5 ± 0.6 0.3 −0.2 −40.0% − 5.2 < 0.01
5. Fiber (g/day)
All (n = 638) 15.4 ± 3.9 14.7 12.5 ± 6.5 11.4 −2.9 − 23.2% − 10.6 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 318) 16.5 ± 4.4 16.0 12.8 ± 7.2 11.7 − 3.7 −28.9% −8.6 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 15.4 ± 3.8 15.1 12.5 ± 6.5 12.0 −2.9 −23.2% −4.8 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 99) 16.2 ± 4.7 15.6 13.7 ± 7.5 11.7 −2.5 −18.2% −3.1 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 87) 18.7 ± 4.4 17.7 12.3 ± 7.8 10.7 −6.4 − 52.0% −7.3 < 0.01
Female (n = 320) 14.2 ± 2.9 13.7 12.2 ± 5.8 11.3 −2.0 −16.4% −6.4 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 129) 14.4 ± 2.7 14.0 11.8 ± 5.2 11.3 −2.6 − 22.0% − 5.7 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 109) 14.0 ± 2.7 13.7 12.7 ± 5.8 11.3 −1.3 −10.2% −2.5 0.02
 12-15y (n = 82) 14.1 ± 3.3 13.3 12.1 ± 6.7 11.3 −2.0 −16.5% −2.9 0.01
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 359) 15.7 ± 4.2 15.0 12.8 ± 6.8 11.7 −2.9 − 22.7% − 7.6 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 103) 15.3 ± 3.8 14.8 11.8 ± 6.6 10.7 −3.6 − 29.7% − 5.4 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 171) 14.6 ± 3.3 14.2 12.0 ± 5.8 11.2 − 2.6 − 21.7% −5.4 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 352) 15.7 ± 4.0 15.1 12.8 ± 6.6 11.5 − 2.8 − 22.7% − 7.9 < 0.01
 African American (n = 131) 14.4 ± 3.9 13.4 11.3 ± 5.1 11.0 − 3.1 − 27.4% − 5.7 < 0.01
 Other (n = 66) 15.4 ± 3.7 14.9 12.2 ± 6.9 11.6 − 3.2 − 26.2% − 3.7 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 255) 15.5 ± 4.0 15.0 12.6 ± 7.0 11.0 −2.8 − 23.0% − 6.2 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 368) 15.2 ± 3.9 14.5 12.4 ± 6.1 11.7 −2.9 − 22.6% − 8.6 < 0.01
6. Dairy (cup equivalents/day)
All (n = 653) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 1.8 ± 1.2 1.6 −0.7 − 38.9% − 14.6 < 0.01
Sex and age
Male (n = 323) 2.7 ± 0.7 2.7 2.0 ± 1.3 1.9 −0.7 − 35.0% − 9.6 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 136) 2.8 ± 0.6 2.7 2.0 ± 1.1 1.9 −0.8 −40.0% − 8.6 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 100) 2.8 ± 0.8 2.6 2.1 ± 1.3 2.1 −0.7 −33.3% −4.6 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 87) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.5 2.0 ± 1.4 1.7 −0.6 − 25.0% −3.8 < 0.01
Female (n = 330) 2.2 ± 0.6 2.2 1.6 ± 1.1 1.4 −0.7 − 37.5% −11.2 < 0.01
 4-8y (n = 131) 2.3 ± 0.5 2.2 1.7 ± 1.1 1.6 −0.6 − 35.3% − 6.0 < 0.01
 9-11y (n = 113) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.3 1.7 ± 1.2 1.6 −0.8 − 47.1% − 6.6 < 0.01
 12-15y (n = 86) 1.9 ± 0.5 1.8 1.2 ± 0.9 1.1 − 0.7 − 58.3% − 7.2 < 0.01
BMI categoryc
 Normal weight (n = 364) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 1.8 ± 1.2 1.7 −0.7 −38.9% − 11.3 < 0.01
 Overweight (n = 105) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.3 1.8 ± 1.2 1.6 −0.6 − 33.3% −5.7 < 0.01
 Obese (n = 179) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 1.8 ± 1.2 1.6 −0.7 −38.9% −7.9 < 0.01
Race
 White (n = 359) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 2.0 ± 1.2 1.9 −0.6 − 25.0% − 8.7 < 0.01
 African American (n = 134) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.3 1.4 ± 1.1 1.3 −0.9 −71.4% −8.9 < 0.01
 Other (n = 67) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 1.9 ± 1.3 1.8 −0.6 −31.6% −4.5 < 0.01
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 265) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 1.7 ± 1.2 1.6 −0.8 − 47.1% − 10.2 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic (n = 372) 2.5 ± 0.7 2.4 1.8 ± 1.2 1.7 −0.6 −38.9% − 10.0 < 0.01
  1. a(ASA24-Kids – DSQ)
  2. b(ASA24-Kids – DSQ)/ASA24-Kids
  3. cBMI categories defined as follows: ‘normal weight’ was defined as having a BMI under the 85th percentile BMI for age and sex; 85th up to 95th percentile for ‘overweight’; and at or above 95th percentile for ‘obese’