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Table 5 Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to dietary pattern scores

From: Dietary patterns during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study in Western China

Dietary patterns Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 p-trend
Plant-based pattern
 GDM cases /pregnancies 63/446 64/446 72/445  
 Model 1a 1.00 1.02 (0.70, 1.48) 1.17 (0.81, 1.69) 0.367
 Model 2b 1.00 0.95 (0.63, 1.43) 0.97 (0.65, 1.46) 0.919
 Model 3c 1.00 0.94 (0.62, 1.42) 0.97 (0.64, 1.47) 0.915
Meat-based pattern
 GDM case/pregnancies 65/446 73/446 61/445  
 Model 1a 1.00 1.15 (0.80, 1.65) 0.93 (0.64, 1.36) 0.628
 Model 2b 1.00 1.05 (0.70, 1.57) 0.82 (0.54, 1.25) 0.318
 Model 3c 1.00 1.08 (0.72, 1.62) 0.89 (0.58, 1.36) 0.534
High protein-low starch pattern
 GDM case/pregnancies 77/446 60/446 62/445  
 Model 1a 1.00 0.74 (0.52, 1.07) 0.78 (0.54, 1.12) 0.148
 Model 2b 1.00 0.83 (0.56, 1.23) 0.73 (0.49, 1.11) 0.137
 Model 3c 1.00 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 0.73 (0.48, 1.10) 0.132
  1. aCrude model
  2. bAdjusted for age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and family history of diabetes
  3. cAdditionally adjusted for parity, education and total physical activity