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Table 3 Baseline characteristics and dietary intakes of participants by tertiles of dietary pattern scoresa

From: Dietary patterns during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study in Western China

Variable Plant-based pattern Meat-based pattern High protein-low starch pattern
Tertile 1 Tertile 3 p b Tertile 1 Tertile 3 p b Tertile 1 Tertile 3 p b
Age (year), mean ± SD 25.5 ± 3.9 26.1 ± 4.1 0.053 25.4 ± 4.0 26.1 ± 4.2 0.034 25.8 ± 4.1 25.9 ± 4.3 0.830
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 0.701    0.518    0.047
  < 18.5 109 (24.4) 97 (21.8)   104 (23.3) 95 (21.4)   96 (21.5) 97 (21.8)  
 18.5–23.9 278 (62.3) 290 (65.2)   279 (62.6) 301 (67.6)   284 (63.7) 307 (69.0)  
  ≥ 24 59 (13.2) 58 (13.0)   63 (14.1) 49 (11.0)   66 (14.8) 41 (9.2)  
Family history of diabetes 24 (6.1) 28 (7.4) 0.677 24 (6.4) 18 (4.7) 0.360 23 (5.9) 27 (7.1) 0.454
Education 0.011    0.184    0.024
 Junior secondary school or below 132 (29.6) 93 (20.9)   105 (23.5) 117 (26.3)   121 (27.1) 103 (23.2)  
 Senior/technical secondary school 163 (36.6) 173 (38.9)   189 (42.4) 156 (35.1)   186 (41.7) 175 (39.3)  
 University or above 151 (33.9) 179 (40.2)   152 (34.1) 172 (38.7)   139 (31.2) 167 (37.5)  
Parity 0.293    < 0.001    0.037
 0 299 (67.0) 316 (71.0)   338 (75.8) 285 (64.0)   292 (65.5) 325 (73.2)  
  ≥ 1 147 (33.0) 129 (29.0)   108 (24.2) 160 (36.0)   154 (34.5) 119 (26.8)  
Active smoking before pregnancy
 Yes 26 (5.8) 18 (4.0) 0.249 23 (5.2) 30 (6.7) 0.314 29 (6.5) 25 (5.6) 0.332
 No 420 (94.2) 427 (96.0)   423 (94.8) 415 (93.3)   417 (93.5) 420 (94.4)  
Total physical activity (MET-hour/week) 141.1 ± 81.1 157.7 ± 87.7 0.013 144.3 ± 83.9 156.7 ± 85.2 0.082 146.2 ± 80.3 149.9 ± 86.1 0.468
Total energy consumption (kcal/day) 1757.2 ± 775.7 2026.3 ± 855.5 < 0.001 1709.0 ± 569.8 2045.1 ± 956.7 < 0.001 1736.7 ± 770.0 2017.1 ± 814.7 < 0.001
Energy-adjusted food intake (g/1000 kcal/day)
 Vegetablesc 85.9 ± 34.1 256.1 ± 104.7 < 0.001 165.6 ± 110.4 171.7 ± 99.8 < 0.001 164.3 ± 96.7 160.9 ± 98.9 0.787
 Fruits 65.4 ± 61.0 131.5 ± 97.6 < 0.001 120.3 ± 102.8 81.9 ± 66.9 < 0.001 80.6 ± 69.8 115.4 ± 101.0 < 0.001
 Nuts and seeds 7.6 ± 7.4 15.1 ± 13.3 < 0.001 14.0 ± 13.6 10.2 ± 9.2 < 0.001 8.2 ± 7.7 15.4 ± 13.8 < 0.001
 Red meatd 51.2 ± 31.2 37.1 ± 24.2 < 0.001 28.3 ± 22.0 56.1 ± 28.4 < 0.001 31.4 ± 23.0 52.6 ± 30.5 < 0.001
 Lean pork meat 34.5 ± 26.6 23.4 ± 18.5 < 0.001 24.5 ± 22.2 33.2 ± 25.1 < 0.001 19.9 ± 18.2 38.1 ± 26.3 < 0.001
 Fish 10.3 ± 9.9 19.3 ± 20.2 < 0.001 11.0 ± 15.1 19.4 ± 20.0 < 0.001 9.1 ± 8.7 21.2 ± 23.5 < 0.001
 Milk 89.2 ± 85.9 96.1 ± 77.4 0.002 127.8 ± 101.2 76.0 ± 66.4 < 0.001 60.7 ± 60.2 136.0 ± 98.7 < 0.001
 Eggs 18.4 ± 18.8 19.9 ± 13.9 0.015 23.7 ± 19.8 18.1 ± 16.5 < 0.001 11.5 ± 11.5 29.1 ± 20.7 < 0.001
 Grainse 203.3 ± 70.5 173.1 ± 54.7 < 0.001 199.6 ± 61.9 171.1 ± 61.2 < 0.001 224.3 ± 61.1 147.1 ± 46.9 < 0.001
Nutrient intake (% energy)
 Protein 13.4 ± 2.8 14.6 ± 2.4 < 0.001 13.3 ± 2.5 14.9 ± 2.7 < 0.001 12.3 ± 2.2 15.7 ± 2.4 < 0.001
 Total fat 50.4 ± 7.6 43.8 ± 6.8 < 0.001 45.7 ± 7.5 48.4 ± 8.5 < 0.001 42.5 ± 7.4 51.3 ± 6.8 < 0.001
 Carbohydrate 37.1 ± 8.8 43.6 ± 7.3 < 0.001 42.6 ± 8.2 38.0 ± 9.0 < 0.001 46.7 ± 7.3 34.3 ± 7.2 < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, MET Metabolic equivalent task
  2. aNumbers are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD. Tertile 2 are not presented for brevity
  3. bBased on ANOVA or χ2 tests
  4. cIncluded green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, gourd/melon family vegetables, red/orange vegetables, root vegetables, bean vegetables and mushrooms
  5. dIncluded pork, beef, ox tripe, pig blood curd, processed meat and organ meat
  6. eIncluded rice, noodles, bread and maize