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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by prospective development of GDM a

From: Dietary patterns during pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study in Western China

Characteristics Overall (n = 1337) GDM (n = 199) Non-GDM (n = 1138) p b
Age (year) 25.8 ± 4.1 26.8 ± 4.2 25.7 ± 4.0 < 0.001
By category 0.002
  < 25 527 (39.4) 63 (31.7) 464 (40.8)  
 25–29 589 (44.1) 86 (43.2) 503 (44.2)  
 30–34 184 (13.8) 40 (20.1) 144 (12.7)  
  ≥ 35 37 (2.8) 10 (5.0) 27 (2.4)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 20.7 ± 2.8 21.8 ± 3.2 20.5 ± 2.7 < 0.001
By category < 0.001
  < 18.5 304 (22.7) 28 (14.1) 276 (24.3)  
 18.5–23.9 865 (64.7) 130 (65.3) 735 (64.6)  
  ≥ 24 168 (12.6) 41 (20.6) 127 (11.2)  
Family history of diabetes 0.006
 Yes 72 (6.2) 19 (11.2) 53 (5.4)  
 No 1013 (87.5) 136 (80.5) 877 (88.7)  
 Don’t know 73 (6.3) 14 (8.3) 59 (6.0)  
Education 0.513
 Junior secondary school or below 321 (24.0) 51 (25.6) 270 (23.7)  
 Senior/technical secondary school 524 (39.2) 82 (41.2) 442 (38.8)  
 University or above 492 (36.8) 66 (33.2) 426 (37.4)  
Parity 0.747
 0 932 (69.8) 137 (68.8) 795 (70.0)  
  ≥ 1 403 (30.2) 62 (31.2) 341 (30.0)  
Active smoking before pregnancy 0.289
 Yes 73 (5.5) 14 (7.0) 59 (5.2)  
 No 1264 (94.5) 185 (93.0) 1079 (94.8)  
Total physical activity (MET-hour/week) 149.7 ± 84.2 145.4 ± 82.6 150.5 ± 84.5 0.439
  1. BMI body mass index, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, MET Metabolic equivalent task
  2. aNumbers are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD
  3. bBased on t-tests or χ2 tests