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Table 6 Fasting concentrations of gut hormones, SCFA and breath H2, 11 h post RB + RS2 or WWB intakea

From: Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Test variables WWB RB + RS2 b
p-PYY, fasting (ng/mL)c 0.44 ± 0.06 0.47 ± 0.07 9*
p-GLP-1, fasting (pg/mL)c 16.2 ± 2.4 17.4 ± 2.9 7
p-GLP-2, fasting (ng/mL)c 8.5 ± 0.9 9.4 ± 1.2 10**
breath H2, fasting (ppm)d 18 ± 3 42 ± 18 139***
  1. GLP Glucagon-like peptide, H2 Breath hydrogen excretion, p Plasma, PYY Peptide YY, RB + RS2 1:1 ratio rye kernel- and flour based bread with added resistant starch (14%, dm), WWB White wheat bread
  2. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (ANOVA, GLM, Minitab)
  3. aData are presented as means ± SEM
  4. bThe percentage change was calculated as the difference from the WWB to the RB + RS2
  5. cn = 37
  6. dn = 38