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Table 5 Glucose and insulin measures post the standardized breakfast, 11-13 h after RB + RS2 or WWB intakea

From: Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Test variables WWB RB + RS2 b
b-Glucose, fasting (mmol/L) 5.7 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.1 0
b-Glucose, iAUC 0–30 min (mmol·min/L) 26.1 ± 2.0 22.5 ± 1.9 −14*
b-Glucose, iAUC 0–120 min (mmol·min/L) 155.5 ± 11.5 143.6 ± 8.6 −8
b-Glucose, iPeak (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.1 2.7 ± 0.1 −3
s-insulin, fasting (nmol/L) 0.036 ± 0.002 0.033 ± 0.002 −10
s-insulin, iAUC 0–30 min (nmol·min/L) 2.1 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 −10
s-insulin, iAUC 0–120 min (nmol·min/L) 12.6 ± 1.1 11.8 ± 1.0 − 7
s-insulin, iPeak (nmol/L) 0.24 ± 0.02 0.20 ± 0.02 −15**
Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISIcomposite) 9.1 ± 0.5 10.1 ± 0.6 11*
HOMA-IR 1.5 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 −9
  1. n = 38
  2. AUC Area under curve, b Whole blood, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, i Incremental, ISIcomposite Insulin sensitivity index, Peak Mean including individual peak value, RB + RS2 1:1 ratio rye kernel- and flour based bread with added resistant starch (14%, dm), s Serum, WWB White wheat bread
  3. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 (ANOVA, GLM, Minitab)
  4. aData are presented as means ± SEM
  5. bThe percentage change was calculated as the difference from the WWB to the RB + RS2