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Table 4 Performance results in the cognitive tests post the standardized breakfast after RB + RS2 or WWB, respectivelya

From: Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Test variables WWB RB + RS2 b
WM test (max 48 CR)
 WM:1 (90 min)c 29.4 ± 0.8 30.0 ± 0.8 2
 WM:2 (120 min)d 29.0 ± 0.7 29.7 ± 0.7 2
 WM:3 (160 min)d 29.8 ± 0.8 29.5 ± 0.8 -1
 WM:1–3 (mean)d 29.3 ± 0.7 29.6 ± 0.7 1
SA-test
 The complete SA tests (max 95 CR)
  SA:1 (30 min)e 69.8 ± 3.3 71.2 ± 3.3 2
  SA:2 (170 min)f 71.9 ± 3.2 72.2 ± 3.2 0
  SA:1–2 (mean)e 70.1 ± 3.2 70.9 ± 3.1 1
 The last half of the SA tests (max 48 CR)
  SA:1 (30 min)e 34.9 ± 1.6 36.0 ± 1.7 3
  SA:2 (170 min)f 35.8 ± 1.5 35.3 ± 1.6 -1
  SA:1–2 (mean)e 35.0 ± 1.5 35.3 ± 1.6 1
 The complete SA tests, reaction time (ms)
  SA:1 (30 min)e 1256 ± 26 1248 ± 28 -1
  SA:2 (170 min)f 1189 ± 25 1176 ± 29 -1
  SA:1–2 (mean)e 1233 ± 25 1218 ± 26 -1
 The last half of the SA tests reaction time (ms)
  SA:1 (30 min)e 1263 ± 30 1225 ± 29 −3
  SA:2 (170 min)f 1188 ± 27 1173 ± 29 -1
  SA:1–2 (mean)e 1238 ± 28 1203 ± 26 -3
  1. CR Correct response, RB + RS2 1:1 ratio rye kernel- and flour based bread with added resistant starch (14%, dm), SA Selective attention, WM Working memory, WWB White wheat bread
  2. aData are presented as means ± SEM
  3. bThe percentage change was calculated as the difference from the WWB to the RB + RS2
  4. cn = 36
  5. dn = 38
  6. en = 37
  7. fn = 35