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Table 2 Daily choline intake values by 24-hr recall interviews and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ)

From: Development and validation of a quantitative choline food frequency questionnaire for use with drinking and non-drinking pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

  Intake below AI Average daily intake (mg)
n (%) Mean (SD) Median (IQR)
Heavy drinkers
 24-hr recalla
  Visit 1 (n = 122) 95 (77.9) 338.6 (257.1) 275.4 (156.7 – 410.5)
  Visit 2 (n = 116) 96 (82.8) 310.8 (221.0) 257.6 (176.1 – 359.4)
  Visit 3 (n = 86) 73 (84.9) 279.8 (185.8) 229.1 (141.3 – 370.0)
  Visits 1-2 (mean; n = 116) 94 (81.0) 327.5 (200.0) 274.7 (194.6 – 409.5)
  Visits 1-3 (mean; n = 86) 73 (84.9) 304.6 (147.6) 273.9 (195.7 – 379.3)
 QFFQb
  Visit 1 (n = 121) 97 (80.2) 340.4 (205.1) 293.0 (208.2 – 436.0)
  Visit 2 (n = 112) 100 (89.3) 286.0 (160.5) 267.9 (176.7 – 352.0)
  Visit 3 (n = 78) 67 (85.9) 259.1 (160.5) 259.1 (175.9 – 337.4)
  Visits 1-2 (mean; n = 112) 97 (86.6) 312.1 (152.1) 301.8 (203.3 – 386.9)
  Visits 1-3 (mean; n = 78) 70 (89.7) 322.8 (180.5) 288.8 (186.3 – 410.5)
Abstainers/light drinkers
 24-hr recalla
  Visit 1 (n = 83) 70 (84.3) 336.8 (255.9) 279.7 (182.5 – 406.1)
  Visit 2 (n = 78) 61 (78.2) 305.7 (179.7) 267.1 (151.8 – 416.7)
  Visit 3 (n = 47) 39 (83.0) 285.9 (175.7) 232.2 (164.6 – 348.3)
  Visits 1-2 (mean; n = 78) 66 (84.6) 318.1 (178.1) 282.6 (186.8 – 386.4)
  Visits 1-3 (mean; n =47 ) 39 (83.0) 303.1 (171.1) 247.6 (196.5 – 364.1)
 QFFQb
  Visit 1 (n = 83) 68 (81.9) 316.4 (215.1) 277.8 (166.5 – 378.5)
  Visit 2 (n = 72) 62 (86.1) 275.3 (162.2) 279.0 (149.0 – 356.7)
  Visit 3 (n = 42) 39 (92.9) 199.6 (113.5) 164.3 (125.1 – 211.9)
  Visits 1-2 (mean; n = 72) 64 (77.1) 304.9 (178.0) 279.1 (175.7 – 402.9)
  Visits 1-3 (mean; n = 42) 37 (88.1) 290.7 (169.6) 266.5 (161.6 – 371.2)
  1. AI = adequate intake (450 mg choline/day)
  2. aPaired t-test comparing values between visits: Drinkers: p = .191 for visits 1-2, .607 for visits 2-3, and .055 for visits 1-3; Abstainers/light-drinkers: p = .380 for visits 1-2, .702 for visits 2-3, and .318 for visits 1-3.
  3. bPaired t-test comparing values between visits: Drinkers: p = .006 for visits 1-2, .921 for visits 2-3, and .019 for visits 1-3; Abstainers/light-drinkers: p = .224 for visits 1-2, .001 for visits 2-3, and .009 for visits 1-3.