Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Development and validation of a quantitative choline food frequency questionnaire for use with drinking and non-drinking pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

  Heavy drinkers Abstainers/light drinkers p a
N M SD n % N M SD n %
Maternal age at conception (yr) 122 27.7 5.7    83 25.5 4.8    .004
Gravidity (no.) 122 2.9 1.7    83 2.5 1.3    .109
Marital status (no. married) 122    34 27.6 83    34 41.0 .046
Education (yr school completed) 122 9.3 1.7    83 10.0 1.6    .005
Average daily energy intake (kilocalories/day) 122 2247.9 810.1    83 2343.0 857.7    .421
Received prenatal iron/folic acid supplementation 119    104 87.4 80    69 86.3 .814
 Takes supplements most days (supplemented only)     104 90.4     65 93.2 .367
Number of visits 122 2.6 0.7    83 2.5 0.7    .110
Weeks gestation
 Initiation of antenatal care 122 17.3 5.9    83 18.7 6.0    .111
 Visit 1 122 22.9 5.8    83 25.5 5.0    .001
 Visit 2 116 27.0 5.6    78 29.9 5.0    <.001
 Visit 3 78 32.5 4.0    46 34.0 3.9    .050
 Delivery 122 38.8 2.1    83 39.0 2.2    .626
Alcohol and drug use
 AA/day (oz) 122 0.9 1.2    83 0.0 0.0    <.001
 AA/drinking day (oz) 122 4.2 2.4    83 0.2 0.5    <.001
 Drinking days/wk (days) 122 1.3 1.1    83 0.0 0.1    <.001
No. reporting cigarette smoking 122    106 86.2 83    57 68.7 .002
 Cigarettes/day (smokers only)   6.8 4.1     6.1 5.9    .435
No. reporting marijuana use 122    29 23.6 83    8 9.6 .011
 Marijuana use (users only; days/mo)   9.7 9.4     4.0 4.7    .026
No. reporting methamphetamine use 122    12 9.8 83    15 18.1 .083
 Methamphetamine use (users only; days/mo)   4.5 5.4     8.8 8.0    .119
  1. AA = absolute alcohol; 1 oz AA ≈ 2 standard drinks
  2. aFrom χ2 for categorical variables and t-tests for all continuous variables except for weight, BMI, triceps and biceps skinfolds, and MUAC, for which values from repeated measures regression models are presented; weight, BMI and MUAC models include control for weeks gestation at time of measurement