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Table 4 Association of maternal fruit and vegetable/vitamin C intake with infants’ weight and length from birth to 6 months

From: Maternal fruit and vegetable or vitamin C consumption during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and infant growth up to 6 months: results from the Korean Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) cohort study

Intake Weight (kg) Length (cm)
At birth At 6 months Birth to 6 months At birth At 6 months Birth to 6 months
n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/lsmean ± SD p
Fruit and vegetables
 Continues
  Unadjusted 1138 0.014 (0.017) 0.4295 741 −0.058 (0.058) 0.3150 1138 0.013 (0.017) 0.4609 1138 0.116 (0.101) 0.2471 740 0.073 (0.162) 0.6520 1138 0.120 (0.101) 0.2329
  Adjusteda 816 0.031 (0.020) 0.1182 559 −0.056 (0.064) 0.3848 639 0.054 (0.023) 0.0184 816 0.172 (0.119) 0.1479 558 −0.043 (0.189) 0.8214 639 0.170 (0.133) 0.2032
 Categoricala
   < median (519 g/d)   3.22 ± 0.03 0.0024   10.09 ± 0.11 0.6718   3.23 ± 0.04 0.0077   50.44 ± 0.20 0.1620   76.82 ± 0.34 0.5126   50.78 ± 0.22 0.2993
   ≥ median (519 g/d)   3.29 ± 0.03    10.12 ± 0.11    3.31 ± 0.04    50.65 ± 0.20    76.98 ± 0.32    50.95 ± 0.22  
Vitamin C
 Continues
  Unadjusted 1138 0.015 (0.016) 0.3537 741 0.018 (0.053) 0.7344 1138 0.014 (0.016) 0.3941 1138 0.197 (0.092) 0.0333 740 0.231 (0.148) 0.1182 1138 0.202 (0.092) 0.0294
  Adjustedb 816 0.035 (0.019) 0.0677 559 0.017 (0.060) 0.7803 639 0.037 (0.021) 0.0808 816 0.314 (0.113) 0.0056 558 0.054 (0.178) 0.7624 639 0.289 (0.125) 0.0214
 Categoricalb
   < EAR (85 mg/d)   3.22 ± 0.04 0.0400   10.07 ± 0.12 0.4290   3.23 ± 0.04 0.0565   50.20 ± 0.21 0.0010   77.00 ± 0.36 0.7231   50.53 ± 0.24 0.0068
   ≥ EAR (85 mg/d)   3.28 ± 0.03    10.14 ± 0.11    3.29 ± 0.04    50.74 ± 0.19    76.90 ± 0.31    51.02 ± 0.21  
ORs (95% CI) for low birth outcomes and low growth up to 6 months (<25th percentile)  
Fruit and vegetables
  < median (519 g/d) 1.434 (1.001–2.056) 0.0494 0.863 (0.627–1.186) 0.3631 1.311 (0.939–1.829) 0.1117 1.316 (0.933–1.857) 0.1178 0.875 (0.636–1.204) 0.4126 1.152 (0.845–1.570) 0.3714
  ≥ median (519 g/d) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Vitamin C
  < EAR (85 mg/d) 1.470 (1.011–2.139) 0.0439 0.910 (0.645–1.284) 0.5916 1.520 (1.066–2.165) 0.0206 1.579 (1.104–2.258) 0.0124 1.182 (0.837–1.669) 0.3416 1.262 (0.900–1.770) 0.1773
  ≥ EAR (85 mg/d) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  1. β value is the coefficient from the multiple regression analysis
  2. Least squares means (lsmeans) is a mean estimated from a general linear model
  3. EAR is estimated average requirement
  4. ORs is odds ratios
  5. Intake data were log-transformed to follow a normal distribution
  6. For repeated measures analyses from birth to 6 months, mixed models (when the dependent variables are continuous) and general estimating equation models (when dependent variables are categorical) were used
  7. aAdjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), urinary cotinine level (log-transformed), infant gender, gestational age at delivery, use of supplements, residential area, parity, father’s height, energy intake (log-transformed) at birth; additionally, adjusted for breastfeeding status at 6 months
  8. bAdjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, urinary cotinine level (log-transformed), infant gender, gestational age at delivery, use of supplements, residential area, parity, father’s height, energy intake (log-transformed), vitamin E intake (log-transformed), β-carotene intake (log-transformed) at birth; additionally, adjusted for breastfeeding status at 6 months