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Table 3 Association of maternal fruit and vegetable/vitamin C intake with fetal growth at late pregnancy

From: Maternal fruit and vegetable or vitamin C consumption during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and infant growth up to 6 months: results from the Korean Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) cohort study

Intake At late pregnancy
Biparietal diameter (cm) Abdominal circumference (cm) Femur length (cm)
n β (SE)/ lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/ lsmean ± SD p n β (SE)/ lsmean ± SD p
Fruit and vegetables
 Continues
  Unadjusted 703 0.004 (0.031) 0.8919 589 0·046 (0.161) 0.7743 689 0.032 (0.030) 0.2835
  Adjusteda 515 0.045 (0.023) 0.0511 433 0·175 (0.135) 0.1964 507 0.001 (0.023) 0.9747
 Categoricala
   < median (519 g/d)   8.92 ± 0.02 0.0245   32.11 ± 0.12 0.2464   6.88 ± 0.02 0.8144
   ≥ median (519 g/d)   8.99 ± 0.02    32.30 ± 0.12    6.87 ± 0.02  
Vitamin C
 Continues
  Unadjusted 703 0.006 (0.030) 0.8457 589 0.045 (0.155) 0.7730 689 −0.022 (0.029) 0.4344
  Adjustedb 515 0.030 (0.023) 0.1898 433 0.279 (0.132) 0.0354 507 0.021 (0.023) 0.3463
 Categoricalb
   < EAR (85 mg/d)   8.94 ± 0.03 0.3342   31.94 ± 0.14 0.0234   6.86 ± 0.02 0.3632
   ≥ EAR (85 mg/d)   8.97 ± 0.02    32.35 ± 0.11    6.89 ± 0.02  
ORs (95% CI) for low fetal biometry (<25th percentile)
Fruit and vegetables
  < median (519 g/d) 2.220 (1.153–4.274) 0.0170 1.695 (0.900–3.192) 0.1023 0.772 (0.388–1.537) 0.4613
  ≥ median (519 g/d) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Vitamin C
  < EAR (85 mg/d) 1.468 (0.753–2.865) 0.2600 1.682 (0.848–3.335) 0.1367 1.139 (0.535–2.423) 0.7359
  ≥ EAR (85 mg/d) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  1. β value is the coefficient from the multiple regression analysis
  2. Least squares means (lsmeans) is a mean estimated from a general linear model
  3. EAR is estimated average requirement
  4. ORs is odds ratios
  5. Intake data were log-transformed for normal distribution
  6. aAdjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), urinary cotinine level (log-transformed), infant gender, gestational age at the time of ultrasound measurement, use of supplements, residential area, parity, father’s height, energy intake (log-transformed)
  7. bAdjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, urinary cotinine level (log-transformed), infant gender, gestational age at the time of ultrasound measurement, use of supplements, residential area, parity, father’s height, energy intake (log-transformed), vitamin E intake (log-transformed), β-carotene intake (log-transformed)