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Table 1 Characteristics of the pregnant women and infants

From: Maternal fruit and vegetable or vitamin C consumption during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and infant growth up to 6 months: results from the Korean Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) cohort study

  n Mean ± SD or n(%)
General characteristics
 Age, years 1136 30.2 ± 3.6
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 1099 21.3 ± 3.1
 Education 1078  
   ≤ High school   293 (27.2)
   ≤ University   714 (66.2)
   ≥ Graduate school   71 (6.7)
 Family monthly income, USD 1064  
   < 2000   288 (27.1)
  2000–4000   596 (53.5)
   ≥ 4000   207 (19.5)
 Parity 967  
  0   485 (50.2)
   ≥ 1   482 (49.8)
 Supplement user 1138 634 (55.7)
 Urinary cotinine, μg/g creatinine 1057 20.9 ± 159.2
 Urinary MDA, μmol/g creatinine 1036 1.8 ± 1.4
Dietary intakes
 Total food intake, g/d 1138 1368.0 ± 450.0
 Fruit and vegetables, g/d 1138 594.4 ± 365.4
 Energy, kcal/d 1138 1774.6 ± 502.6
 Carbohydrates, g/d 1138 276.4 ± 82.0
 Protein, g/d 1138 68.7 ± 25.0
 Fat, g/d 1138 47.0 ± 24.2
 Vitamin C, mg/d 1138 134.8 ± 99.2
 Vitamin E, mg α-TE/d 1138 17.1 ± 8.5
 β-carotene, μg/d 1138 2703.5 ± 2275.6
Fetal biometry at late pregnancy
 Biparietal diameter, cm 703 8.94 ± 0.56
 Abdominal circumference, cm 589 32.13 ± 2.54
 Femur length, cm 689 6.85 ± 0.53
Pregnancy outcomes
 Neonatal gender (male) 1132 582 (51.4)
 Gestational age at delivery, weeks 1138 39.1 ± 1.1
 Birth weight, kg 1138 3.3 ± 0.4
 Birth length, cm 1138 50.5 ± 2.5
 Breastfeeding status, yes 741 480 (64.8)
Infants characteristics at 6 months
 Weight, kg 741 10.1 ± 1.0
 Length, cm 740 76.7 ± 2.5
  1. BMI Body mass index, MDA Malondialdehyde, α-TE Alpha-tocopherol equivalents