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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: An empirical investigation of the impact of smoking on body weight using an endogenous treatment effects model approach: the role of food consumption patterns

Variables Total
(N = 3471)
Males
(N = 1762)
Females
(N = 1709
Chi-square p-value
Age 3.157 0.206
 18–29 years old 583 (16.8%) 308 (17.5%) 275 (16.1%)  
 30–60 years old 1899 (54.8%) 938 (53.3%) 961 (56.3%)
 Older than 60 years 986 (28.4%) 514 (29.2%) 472 (27.6%)
Marital status 77.825 0.000
 Married 1998 (57.6%) 1039 (59.0%) 959 (56.2%)  
 Divorced/widowed 496 (14.3%) 165 (9.4%) 331 (19.4%)
 Single 973 (28.1%) 556 (31.6%) 417 (24.4%)
Area of residence 2.660 0.264
 Big city 1104 (31.8%) 564 (32.0%) 540 (31.6%)  
 Town 1006 (29.0%) 490 (27.8%) 516 (30.2%)  
 Village/Rural area 1360 (39.2) 708(40.2%) 652 (38.2%)  
Educational attainment 12.879 0.002
 Up to secondary education 1993 (57.5%) 973 (55.3%) 1020 (59.8%)  
 Post-secondary education 767 (22.1%) 386 (21.9%) 381 (22.3%)  
 Postgraduate studies 706 (20.4%) 400 (22.7%) 306 (17.9%)
Frequent consumption of:
 Whole grain bread 2096 (60.4%) 982 (55.8%) 1114 (65.2%) 31.961 0.000
 White-toasted bread 983 (28.3%) 581 (33.0%) 402 (23.5%) 38.180 0.000
 Fruits 2305 (66.4%) 995 (56.5%) 1310 (76.7%) 157.917 0.000
 Fresh-frozen vegetables 1534 (44.2%) 621 (35.3%) 913 (53.4%) 115.954 0.000
 Meat products 2882 (83.1%) 1590 (90.3%) 1292 (75.6%) 132.982 0.000
 Deep fried foods 274 (7.9%) 188 (10.7%) 86 (5.0%) 37.982 0.008
 Confectionery 1957 (56.4%) 949 (53.9%) 1008 (59.0%) 9.145 0.002
BMI 94.948 0.000
 Underweight 67 (2.0%) 14 (0.8%) 53 (3.2%)  
 Normal weight 1503 (44.0%) 663 (37.8%) 840 (50.5%)
 Overweight 1230 (36.0%) 735 (41.9%) 495 (29.7%)
 Obese 619 (18.0%) 342 (19.5%) 277 (16.6%)
Smoking behaviour
 Smoker (Smoking participation) 998 (28.8%) 586 (33.3%) 412 (24.1%) 35.717 0.000
  t-test p-value
 Smoking prevalencea 25.365 (5.236) 30.005 (2.492) 20.581 (2.046) 62.193 0.000
  1. aMean, standard deviation in parentheses
  2. (Statistically significant variables are highlighted in bold)