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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all the studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis

First Author, Year, Country Study design Age (years) No. of Cases /Participants Dietary assessment Exposure details Contrast (Highest vs. lowest) RR (95% CI) (Highest vs. lowest) Adjustments NOS
Qin,2015, USA PB-CC Cases:57.5
Control:54.5
406/1015 Validated 110-item FFQ Total fiber ≥10.9 vs. ≤6.5 g/d 0.79 (0.53,1.17) Age, education, region, total energy intake, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopause status, tubal ligation and family history of breast/ovarian cancer, alcohol. 7
Hedelin,2011, Sweden Cohort 30–49
at entry
163/47140 Validated 80-item FFQ Total fiber
Cereal fiber
Vegetable fiber
2.5–10 vs. ≤1.82 g/d
1.5–5.7 vs. ≤0.90 g/d
2.5–10 vs. ≤1.82 g/d
0.82 (0.50,1.35)
1.17 (0.74,1.87)
1.02 (0.63,1.64)
Age, oral contraceptives, age at menarche, parity, hormone replacement therapy, and intake of total energy intake, alcohol, saturated fat, meat, and fish. 8
Nagle,2011, Australia PB-CC Cases:57.6
Control:56.3
1366/2780 136-item FFQ Total fiber 38–77 vs. 10–27 g/d 0.78 (0.62,0.98) Age, oral contraceptive use, level of post school education, parity, BMI, menopausal status, energy intake. 8
Silvera,2007, USA Cohort 59.4 ± 7.2 264/49613 Validated
86-item FFQ
Total fiber
Soluble fiber
Insoluble fiber
Cereal fiber
Vegetable fiber
Fruit fiber
> 24.0 vs. < 15.6 g/d
> 7.4 vs. < 4.4 g/d
> 5.1 vs. < 2.8 g/d
> 5.2 vs. < 2.6 g/d
> 10.1 vs. < 5.5 g/d
> 5.8 vs. < 2.2 g/d
0.77 (0.52,1.14)
0.79 (0.51,1.23)
0.72 (0.47,1.10)
1.09 (0.71,1.70)
0.94 (0.63,1.40)
0.76 (0.51,1.12)
Age, BMI, alcohol, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral
contraceptives, parity, age at
Menarche, menopausal status, total energy intake, physical activity, study center, treatment allocation.
8
Pan,2004, Canada PB-CC Cases:55.1
Control:55.2
442/2577 Validated
69-item FFQ
Total fiber Q4 vs. Q1 0.91 (0.66,1.25) 10-year age group, province of residence, education, alcohol consumption, cigarette pack-years, BMI, total caloric intake, recreational
Physical activity, number of live births, menstruation years, menopause status.
7
McCann,2003, USA PB-CC 40–85 124/820 FFQ Total fiber > 34 vs. < 19 g/d 0.43 (0.20,0.94) Age, education, total months menstruating, difficulty becoming pregnant, oral contraceptive use, menopausal status, total energy 6
Zhang,2004, Australia HB-CC < 75 254/906 Validated 120-item FFQ Insoluble fiber ≥15.3 vs. ≤9.7 g/d 0.36 (0.21,0.62) Age, education, family income, BMI, total energy intake, smoking, alcohol, ovarian cancer in first degree relatives, parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive use. 6
Salazar-Martinez,2002, Mexico HB-CC 20–79 84/713 Validated
116-item FFQ
Total fiber ≥24 vs. ≤ 13 g/d 1.15(0.65,2.05) Age, total energy intake, number of live births, recent changes in weight, physical activity, diabetes. 6
Goodman, 2002, USA PB-CC 54.8 558/1165 256-item FFQ Total fiber ≥29.4 vs. ≤ 15.3 g/d 1.01 (0.63,1.63) Age, ethnicity, study center, education, use of oral contraceptives, parity, tubal ligation, energy intake. 7
Pelucchi,2001, Italy HB-CC 18–79 1031/3442 Validated
78-item FFQ
Total fiber
Insoluble fiber
Vegetable fiber
Fruit fiber
Grain fiber
Q5 vs. Q1
Q5 vs. Q1
Q5 vs. Q1
Q5 vs. Q1
Q5 vs. Q1
0.68 (0.53,0.88)
0.70 (0.54,0.89)
0.59 (0.46,0.77)
0.96 (0.75,1.22)
1.32 (1.03,1.71)
Age, center, education, occupational physical activity, parity, oral
contraceptive use, family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer in first-degree relatives, menopausal status, total energy intake
6
McCann,2001, USA, HB-CC 20–87 496/1921 44-item FFQ Total fiber ≥30 vs. ≤16 g/d 0.57 (0.38,0.87) Age, education, region of residence, regularity of menstruation, family history of ovarian cancer, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, total energy intake 6
Kushi,1999, USA Cohort 55–69 139/29083 Validated
126-item FFQ
Total fiber > 23.6 vs. < 16.3 g/d 1.01 (0.61,1.68) Age, total energy intake, number of live births, age at menopause, family history of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, hysterectomy/unilateral oophorectomy status, waist-to-hip ratio, level of physical activity, cigarette smoking, and educational level. 7
Risch,1994, Canada PB-CC 35–79 450/1014 200-item FFQ Total fiber
Vegetable fiber
Fruit fiber
Cereal fiber
For 10 g/d increase 0.82 (0.71,0.94)
0.63 (0.49,0.80)
1.03 (1.75,1.43)
0.88 (0.70,1.10)
Age, number of full-term pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, total dally calories, saturated tat/total fat. 6
  1. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, PB-CC population-based case-control, HB-CC hospital-based case-control, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, BMI body mass index