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Table 4 Adjusted differences in consumption behaviors between intervention and comparison youth after BHCK intervention a,b

From: A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth

Youth Daily Consumption Predicted Baseline Predicted Post-intervention Pre-post change: adjusted difference c
Intervention Comparison Intervention Comparison
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Effect (95% CI)
Total daily caloric intake 1706.9 (65.5) 1771.3 (67.8) 1358.1 (73.4) 1349.9 (75.8) 72.5 (−120.3; 265.4)
9–12 years old 1712.1 (76.7) 1669.4 (84.2) 1360.5 (85.7) 1318.2 (92.5) −0.5 (− 240.4; 239.5)
13–15 years old 1678.4 (104.3) 1927.7 (96.8) 1377.6 (104.3) 1437.9 (108.4) 189.1 (− 132.9; 510.9)
Beverage
Sugary beverages (total kcal) 147.8 (8.1) 160.3 (8.6) 181.7 (9.6) 170.6 (10.1) 23.4 (−7.3; 54.1)
 9–12 years old 125.0 (9.1) 138.7 (10.3) 180.1 (10.7) 168.0 (11.8) 25.8 (−10.1; 61.7)
 13–15 years old 182.7 (15.9) 188.6 (15.1) 201.1 (19.4) 196.3 (17.1) 10.7 (−47.2; 68.7)
Fruit Punch (ounces, daily) 4.7 (0.5) 5.5 (0.5) 5.3 (0.4) 5.2 (0.4) 0.8 (−1.0; 2.5)
 9–12 years old 3.9 (0.6) 4.5 (0.6) 5.2 (0.5) 4.8 (0.5) 0.9 (−1.2; 3.1)
 13–15 years old 5.6 (0.8) 6.4 (0.9) 5.9 (0.9) 6.5 (0.8) 0.1 (−3.1; 3.3)
Snacks
% of kcal from sweets 14.9 (0.6) 15.2 (0.6) 14.5 (1.9) 15.8 (0.7) −1.0 (−3.1; 1.2)
 9–12 years old 15.5 (0.6) 16.1 (0.7) 14.9 (0.7) 15.5 (0.8) 0.1 (−2.7; 2.8)
 13–15 years old 15.1 (0.9) 14.3 (0.8) 14.7 (0.9) 11.9 (1.1) −3.5 (−7.0; −0.1)
Dietary total sugar (grams) 120.3 (2.2) 117.2 (2.3) 121.1 (2.6) 115.7 (2.7) 2.3 (−6.5; 11.0)
 9–12 years old 117.8 (2.5) 113.6 (2.8) 119.4 (2.9) 113.5 (3.2) 1.6 (−8.7; 11.9)
 13–15 years old 125.7 (4.1) 124.6 (3.8) 123.3 (5.0) 119.3 (4.4) 2.9 (−13.1; 19.1)
Dietary sodium (mg) 2321.6 (28.0) 24,702.9(29.6) 2326.0 (33.3) 2415.7 (34.7) −8.4 (− 117.6; 100.8)
 9–12 years old 2259.9 (31.5) 2360.5 (36.1) 2281.5 (37.5) 2376.7 (41.3) 5.4 (− 127.9; 138.8)
 13–15 years old 2446.1 (54.1) 2484.6 (50.9) 2427.9 (65.5) 2497.1 (57.5) −30.5 (− 219.9; 158.3)
Fruit (total cups) 1.7 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.2 (0.1) −0.1 (−0.3; 0.2)
 9–12 years old 1.8 (0.1) 1.5 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) 1.2 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.5; 0.1)
 13–15 years old 1.5 (0.1) 1.5 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 0.2 (−0.1; 0.6)
Vegetable (total cups) 0.9 (0.1) 1.0 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.1; 0.1)
 9–12 years old 1.0 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.2; 0.1)
 13–15 years old 0.9 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.1 (−0.2; 0.2)
Fat (servings) 3.1 (0.1) 3.0 (0.1) 3.2 (0.2) 3.2 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.2; 0.2)
 9–12 years old 3.3 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.5; 0.2)
 13–15 years old 3.3 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) 3.2 (0.1) −0.1 (− 0.5; 0.2)
  1. Abbreviations: SE (standard error), CI (confidence interval)
  2. aMultilevel models were conducted with Stata 13.1 package with the maximum likelihood option to impute multilevel data (n = 509). Multilevel models are good approach to be used under the missing at random assumption, as it models both the means and the random effect jointly [52]
  3. bIn all models: treatment group was coded as comparison (0) and intervention (1); time was coded as baseline (0) and post-intervention (1); caregiver’s age (continuous), and youth’s age (continuous, centered at the mean), caregiver and youth’s sex (0 = male, 1 = female), race (0 = other; 1 = African-American), total daily caloric intake (continuous) were added as covariates; standard errors were corrected for clustering for repeated measures from the same individual and BHCK neighborhood (from 1 to 30)
  4. cMean adjusted difference in change over time for intervention compared to control youth
  5. Bolded values: p < 0.05