Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted differences in purchasing behaviors between intervention and comparison youth after BHCK intervention a,b

From: A multilevel, multicomponent childhood obesity prevention group-randomized controlled trial improves healthier food purchasing and reduces sweet-snack consumption among low-income African-American youth

Youth Purchasing Behavior Predictive Baseline Predictive Post-intervention Pre-post change: adjusted difference c
Intervention Comparison Intervention Comparison
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Effect (95% CI)
Healthier Food
Items per week 2.6 (0.9) 3.2 (0.9) 11.4 (0.9) 10.6 (0.9) 1.4 (0.02; 2.8)
 9–12 years old 2.4 (0.9) 3.4 (0.9) 11.9 (0.9) 10.2 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9; 4.6)
 13–15 years old 3.5 (1.0) 2.9 (1.0) 9.6 (1.1) 10.3 (1.0) −1.4 (−3.6; 0.8)
Unhealthier Food
Items per week 4.6 (0.6) 5.0 (0.6) 10.7 (0.6) 10.1(0.6) 0.9 (−0.2; 2.1)
 9–12 years old 4.2 (0.6) 4.7 (0.6) 10.9 (0.6) 9.9 (0.6) 1.6 (0.1; 3.0)
 13–15 years old 6.0 (0.8) 5.4 (0.7) 9.9 (0.9) 10.0 (0.8) −0.7 (−2.6; 1.2)
  1. Abbreviations: SE (standard error), CI (confidence interval)
  2. aMultilevel models were conducted with Stata 13.1 package with the maximum likelihood option to impute multilevel data (n = 509). Multilevel models are good approach to be used under the missing at random assumption, as it models both the means and the random effect jointly [52]
  3. bIn all models: treatment group was coded as comparison (0) and intervention (1); time was coded as baseline (0) and post-intervention (1); caregiver’s age (continuous), and youth’s age (continuous, centered at the mean), caregiver and youth’s sex (0 = male, 1 = female), and race (0 = African-American, 1 = other) were added as covariates; standard errors were corrected for clustering for repeated measures from the same individual and BHCK neighborhood (from 1 to 30)
  4. cMean adjusted difference in change over time for intervention compared to control youth
  5. Healthier food (low fat/low sugar) by variety of different number of food items purchased per week, includes: 1% or skim milk, diet soda, water, 100% fruit juice, sugar free drinks, fruit flavored water, unsweetened tea, fresh fruits such as apples, oranges, bananas, frozen and canned fruit, fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables, canned tuna in water, low sugar/high fiber cereals, 100% whole wheat bread, hot cereal, pretzels, baked chips, reduced-fat chips, dried fruit, nuts or seeds, cooking spray, grilled chicken, grilled seafood, fruit and vegetable as side dishes, deli sandwich, tacos, yogurt, granola
  6. Unhealthier food (high fat/high sugar) by variety of different number of food items purchased per week, includes: regular soda, fruit punch, sweet ice tea, whole milk, tuna in oil, pork hot dog, baked beans, sugar cereal, white bread, sweetened oatmeal, chips, cookies, candy, ice cream, popsicle, butter, oil, mayonnaise
  7. Bolded values: p < 0.05