Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of women prenatally exposed and unexposed to vitamin D fortified margarine and their offspring

From: In utero exposure to extra vitamin D from food fortification and the risk of subsequent development of gestational diabetes: the D-tect study

  Exposed Unexposed p-value
N Median (5,95 percentiles) N Median (5,95 percentiles)  
Age at deliverya,c 14,016 25.2 (21.4;27.3) 14,855 25.1 (21.2;27.3) < 0.0001
Gestational sunshine hoursa,c,e 14,016 1108 (752;1311) 14,855 1004 (772;1320) < 0.0001
Offspring’s birth weight (g) b,d 14,016 3460 (2572;4270) 14,855 3455 (2560;4260) 0.3
   Percentage   Percentage  
Gestational diabetes mellitusa 297 2.1 361 2.4 0.08
Pre-pregnancy BMIa,d      0.01
 < 18.5 kg/m2 636 4.5 800 5.4  
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 8514 60.7 8860 59.6  
 25–29.9 kg/m2 2984 21.3 3154 21.2  
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 1882 13.4 2041 13.7  
Size for gestational agea      0.7
 SGA 1741 12.4 1891 12.7  
 NGA 11,299 80.7 11,961 80.6  
 LGA 955 6.8 990 6.7  
Birth weight (g)a,d      0.8
 < 2500 570 4.1 593 4.0  
 2500–4000 11,536 82.3 12,274 82.6  
 ≥ 4000 1910 13.6 1988 13.4  
Smoking status during pregnancya,d      < 0.0001
 Current smoker 2170 15.8 1911 13.0  
 Former smoker 715 5.2 827 5.6  
 Non-smoker 10,890 79.1 11,935 81.3  
Season of birthd      0.8
 Winter 3214 23.0 3465 23.3  
 Spring 3568 25.5 3722 25.1  
 Summer 3675 26.2 3875 26.1  
 Autumn 3559 25.4 3793 25.5  
Offspring’s gestational age at delivery (weeks)b,d      < 0.0001
 < 37 871 6.2 892 6.0  
 37 + 0–37 + 6 699 5.0 727 4.9  
 38 + 0–38 + 6 1688 12.0 1751 11.8  
 39 + 0–39 + 6 3068 21.9 3150 21.2  
 40 + 0–40 + 6 4033 28.8 4423 29.8  
 41 + 0–41 + 6 2819 20.1 3414 23.0  
 ≥ 42 838 6.0 498 3.4  
Offspring’s genderb,d      0.02
 Female 6920 49.4 7128 48.0  
 Male 7096 50.6 7727 52.0  
  1. aCharacteristics of women prenatally exposed and unexposed to vitamin D fortified margarine and b their offspring
  2. ctested by Mann-Whitney rank-sum test and d tested by X2-test
  3. eSummary monthly sunshine hours during the nine months prior to the month of birth, bounded to each individual