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Table 3 The association between optimism and pessimism, and the change in dietary habits

From: Pessimism, diet, and the ability to improve dietary habits: a three-year follow-up study among middle-aged and older Finnish men and women

  Has not changed No need to change Has changed Tried to change, but failed p1
Reducing fat N = 82 N = 1059 N = 1280 N = 204  
 Optimism (Mean (SD)) 8.60 (2.02) 8.26 (2.24) 8.39 (2.08) 8.18 (2.14) 0.385
 Pessimism (SD) 4.59 (2.60) 4.19 (2.79) 3.62 (2.58) 4.44 (2.81) < 0.001
Changing to low-fat products N = 155 N = 1098 N = 1266 N = 106  
 Optimism (Mean (SD)) 8.37 (2.20) 8.28 (2.21) 8.39 (2.09) 8.18 (2.15) 0.674
 Pessimism (Mean (SD)) 4.46 (2.74) 4.15 (2.77) 3.65 (2.60) 4.47 (2.76) < 0.001
Increasing vegetables N = 198 N = 1141 N = 1090 N = 196  
 Optimism (Mean (SD)) 8.46 (2.16) 8.25 (2.28) 8.43 (2.01) 8.10 (2.06) 0.058
 Pessimism (Mean (SD)) 4.10 (2.69) 4.09 (2.77) 3.69 (2.59) 4.43 (2.79) < 0.001
Reducing sugar N = 110 N = 1287 N = 986 N = 242  
 Optimism (Mean (SD)) 8.23 (2.13) 8.29 (2.23) 8.42 (2.04) 8.17 (2.18) 0.520
 Pessimism (Mean (SD)) 4.16 (2.54) 4.04 (2.75) 3.78 (2.69) 3.95 (2.54) 0.145
Increasing berries and fruits N = 128 N = 1520 N = 859 N = 118  
 Optimism (Mean (SD)) 8.38 (2.05) 8.39 (2.20) 8.32 (2.05) 7.81 (2.22) 0.041
 Pessimism (Mean (SD)) 4.43 (2.77) 4.02 (2.78) 3.68 (2.51) 4.35 (2.72) 0.002
  1. 1 Kruskal–Wallis test
  2. p1-scores indicating statistical significance are bolded