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Table 3 BMI z-score and risks of adverse growth outcomes at age 2–5 y in each weight gain class

From: Insights into infancy weight gain patterns for term small-for-gestational-age babies

Trajectories classes BMI-for-age
Z-score
Overweight/obesity Malnutrition
β (95CI %) N (%) OR (95CI %) N (%) OR (95CI %)
Class 1 Excessively rapid catch-up growth
 Unadjusted 1.1(1.0,1.2)§ 174 (54.0) 10.6(8.1,13.9)§ 6(1.9) 0.7(0.3,1.6)
 Adjusted 1.1(1.0,1.2)§   11.6(8.8,15.3)§   0.7(0.3,1.6)
Class 2 rapid catch-up growth
 Unadjusted 0.4(0.4,0.5)§ 118 (19.9) 2.2(1.7,2.9)§ 2(0.3) 0.1(0.0,0.5)
 Adjusted 0.4(0.4,0.5)§   2.3(1.8,3.0)§   0.1(0.0,0.5)
Class 3 Appropriate catch-up growth (referent) 1.0 167 (10.0) 1.0 45(2.7) 1.0
Class 4 Slow catch-up growth
 Unadjusted −0.3(−0.4,-0.2)§ 16 (5.2) 0.5(0.3,0.8) 34(11.1) 4.5 (2.8,7.2)§
 Adjusted −0.3(− 0.4,-0.2)§   0.5(0.3,0.8)   4.4(2.7,7.1)§
Class 5 Almost no catch-up growth
 Unadjusted −0.7(−0.8,-0.5)§ 5 (4.5) 0.4(0.2,1.1)§ 42(38.2) 22.3(13.8,36.3)§
 Adjusted −0.7(− 0.8,-0.5)§   0.4(0.2,1.0)§   21.2(12.6,35.6)§
  1. Adjusted for gender, birthweight (2.5Kg ≤ BW<3.0Kg, BW<2.5Kg), gestational age (late term 40 ≤ GA<42 wk., early term 37 ≤ GA<40 wk.), residence (urban, rural)
  2. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  3. P<0.01;§P<0.001