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Table 5 Changes in foods taken before dinner/foods for breaking fast and dinner meals in Ramadan among participating pupils in JHS

From: Ramadan fasting alters food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight among Ghanaian adolescents

  Baseline n/N (%) Midline n/N (%) Endline n/N (%) Post Ramadan n/N (%)
Dish variety score of taken before dinner meals/ foods for breaking fast, mean ± SD 1.1 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.3
Dish variety of foods taken before dinner/foods for breaking fast
 One dish 103/112 (92.0) 99/312 (31.6) 98/339 (28.9) 96/106 (90.6)
 Two or more dishes 9/112 (8.0) 214/312 (68.4) 241 (71.1) 10/106 (9.4)
Before dinner meals/ foods at Iftar
 Dates 0/112 (0.0) 187/312 (59.9) 209/339 (61.4) 0/106 (0.0)
 Watermelon 1/112 (0.9) 61/312 (19.6) 97/339 (28.6) 25/106 (23.6)
 Mango 16/112 (14.3) 62/312 (19.9) 64/339 (18.9) 0/106 (23.6)
 Banana 3/112 (2.7) 19/312 (6.1) 15/339 (4.4) 1/106 (0.9)
 Orange 1/112 (0.9) 12/312 (3.8) 6/339 (1.6) 1/106 (0.9)
 Other fruits 3/112 (2.7) 6/312 (1.9) 6/339 (1.6) 1/106 (0.9)
 Mashed kenkey 16/112 (14.3) 169/312 (54.2) 188/339 (55.5) 11/106 (10.4)
 Porridge 7/112 (6.2) 58/312 (18.6) 59/339 (17.4) 7/106 (6.6)
 Tea 1/112 (0.9) 11/312 (3.5) 6/339 (1.8) 3/106 (2.8)
 Roselle drink (Sobolo) 13/112 (11.6) 6/312 (1.9) 9/339 (2.7) 7/106 (6.6)
Tuo zaafi/ Rice and stew 26/112 (23.2) 6/312 (1.9) 5/339 (1.5) 19/106 (17.9)
 Other foods 36/112 (32.1) 49/312 (15.7) 30/339 (8.8) 36/106 (34.0)
Dish variety score of dinner meals, mean ± SD 1.0 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1
Dish variety at dinner
 One dish 340/340 (100) 317/349 (90.8) 313/352 (88.9) 330/336 (98.2)
 Two or more dishes 0/340 (0.0) 32/349 (9.2) 39/352 (11.1) 6/336 (1.8)
Dinner meals
 Rice and stew 57/340 (16.8) 128/349 (36.7) 123/352 (34.9) 47/336 (14.0)
 Rice and beans 17/340 (5.0) 48/349 (13.8) 60/352 (17.0) 27/336 (8.0)
Tuo zaafi and soup 216/340 (63.5) 125/349 (35.8) 121/352 (34.4) 216/336 (64.3)
Banku and soup/stew 16/340 (4.7) 27/349 (7.7) 28/352 (8.0) 23/336 (6.8)
Fufu with soup 0/340 (0.0) 4/349 (1.1) 4/352 (1.1) 4/336 (1.2)
 Fruits 0/340 (0.0) 5/349 (1.4) 3/352 (0.9) 0/336 (0.0)
 Other foods 27/340 (7.9) 45/349 (12.9) 41/352 (11.6) 24/336 (7.1)
Foods after dinner
 Fruits 31/61 (50.8) 29/78 (37.2) 11/45 (24.4) 10/41 (24.4)