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Table 4 Changes in breakfast/dawn and lunch meals in Ramadan among participating pupils in JHS

From: Ramadan fasting alters food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight among Ghanaian adolescents

  Baseline n/N (%) Midline n/N (%) Endline n/N (%) Post Ramadan n/N (%)
Dish variety score of breakfast/dawn meals, mean ± SD 1.0 ± 0.13 1.5 ± 0.51 1.5 ± 0.52 1.0 ± 0.14
Dish variety at breakfast/dawn
 One dish 341/347 (98.3) 196/361 (54.3) 181/357 (50.7) 352/359 (98.1)
 Two or more dishes 6/347 (1.7) 165/361 (45.7) 176/357 (49.3) 7/359 (1.9)
Breakfast/dawn meals
 Tea/tea and bread 128/347 (36.9) 223/361 (61.8) 202/357 (56.6) 163/359 (45.4)
 Porridge (with kose/groundnut/bread) 124/347 (35.7) 11/361 (3.0) 11/357 (3.1) 119/359 (33.1)
 Rice and stew (plain rice/jollof/fried rice/riceballs) 20/347 (5.8) 71/361 (19.7) 97/357 (27.2) 20/359 (5.6)
 Rice and beans with stew 20/347 (5.8) 31/361 (8.6) 43/357 (12.0) 14/359 (3.9)
 Tuo zaafi with soup 5/347 (1.4) 107/361 (29.6) 92/357 (25.8) 8/359 (2.2)
 Banku with soup 2/347 (0.6) 20/361 (3.8) 16/357 (4.5) 2/359 (0.6)
 Cocoa drink with bread 25/347 (7.2) 27/361 (7.5) 18/357 (5.0) 18/359 (5.0)
 Fufu with soup 0/347 (0.0) 7/361 (1.9) 2/357 (0.6) 0/359 (0)
 Fruits 0/347 (0.0) 2/361 (0.6) 1/357 (0.3) 0/359 (0)
 Other foods 26/347 (7.5) 30/361 (8.3) 19/357 (5.3) 20/359 (5.6)
Dish variety score of lunch meals, mean ± SD 1.0 ± 0.15 1.2 ± 0.38 1.1 ± 0.29 1.01 ± 0.11
Dish variety at lunch
 One dish 326/334 (97.6) 11/13 (84.6) 11/12 (92) 334/338 (98.8)
 Two or more dishes 8/334 (2.4) 2/13 (15.4) 1/12 (8) 4/338 (1.2)
Lunch meals
 Rice and stew (plain rice/jollof/fried rice/riceballs) 108/334 (32.3) 6/13 (46.2) 3/12 (25) 92/338 (27.2)
 Rice and beans with stew 71/334 (21.3) 0/13 (0) 3/12 (25) 103/338 (30.5)
 Tuo zaafi with soup 69/334 (20.7) 2/13 (15.4) 5/12 (42) 58/338 (17.2)
 Banku with soup 16/334 (4.8) 1/13 (7.7) 0/12 (0) 12/338 (3.6)
 Kenkey with stew 11/334 (3.3) 0/13 (0) 0/12 (0) 10/338 (3.0)
 Yam meal (Wasawasa) 14/334 (4.2) 0/13 (0) 0/12 (0) 9/338 (2.7)
 Fufu with soup (pounded yams and/cassava) 4/334 (1.2) 0/13 (0) 0/12 (0) 0/338 (0)
 Fruits 1/334 (0.3) 0/13 (0) 0/12 (0) 0/338 (0)
 Other foods 46/334 (13.8) 4/13 (30.8) 1/12 (8.3) 56/338 (16.6)