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Table 3 Pairwise comparisons of changes in feeding frequency of participating pupils in JHS before, during and aftrer Ramadan (Repeated measures ANOVA)

From: Ramadan fasting alters food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight among Ghanaian adolescents

(I) feed frequency
(mean ± SD)
(J) feed frequency
(mean ± SD)
Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.b 95% Confidence Interval for Differenceb
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Baseline frequency (3.1 ± 0.6) Midline frequency
(2.7 ± 0.8)
0.437a 0.048 < 0.001 0.311 0.564
End line frequency
(2.7 ± 0.7)
0.423a 0.044 < 0.001 0.308 0.539
Post Ramadan frequency
(3.1 ± 0.7)
0.052 0.042 1.000 −0.061 0.164
Midline frequency (2.7 ± 0.8) End line frequency
(2.7 ± 0.7)
− 0.014 0.048 1.000 −0.140 00.113
Post Ramadan frequency
(3.1 ± 0.7)
−0.385a 0.048 < 0.001 −0.513 −0.257
End line frequency (2.7 ± 0.7) Post Ramadan frequency
(3.1 ± 0.7)
−0.372a 0.047 < 0.001 −0.496 − 0.247
  1. Based on estimated marginal means, a. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level, bAdjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni