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Table 2 Fasting characteristics of participating pupils in JHS

From: Ramadan fasting alters food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight among Ghanaian adolescents

Characteristic Summary values
Age started fasting (n = 366), mean ± SD 11.2 ± 2.5a
Days fasted during Ramadan (n = 366), mean ± SD 28.3 ± 3.6d
Fasting duration within a day (hours) (n = 366), mean ± SD 14.3 ± 0.54b
Days missed fasting (mean ± SD) 1.73 ± 3.59d
Reasons for missing fasting, n (%)
 Could not wake up in good time 7 (6.7)c
 Was sick 42 (40.0)c
 Menstruation (girls) 52 (49.5)c
 Others 4 (3.8)c
Parents fasting? (n = 363), n (%)
 Yes 356 (98.1)
Encouragement to fast (n = 351), n (%)
 Father 142 (40.5)b
 Mother 140 (39.9)b
 Sibling 15 (4.3)b
 Uncle 13 (3.7)b
 Spiritual leader 3 (0.9)b
 Others 38 (10.8)b
Reasons for fasting (n = 334), n (%)
 Spiritual growth (blessing) 144 (43.1)b
 It is compulsory 80 (24.0)b
 Parents fasting 27 (8.1)b
 For good health 10 (3.0)b
 Other reasons 73 (21.9)b
Continued fasting after Ramadan (n = 366), n (%)
 No 220 (60.1)d
Days fasted after Ramadan (n = 146), mean ± SD 5.38 ± 1.55d
Reasons for fasting after Ramadan (n = 146), n (%)
 Obeying religious recommendation 83 (56.8)d
 Replacing missed days 52 (35.6)d
 Others 11 (7.5)d
Sickness during Ramadan? (n = 366), n (%)
 No 231 (63.1)c
Type of sickness during Ramadan (n = 135), n (%)
 Malaria 30 (22.2)c
 Diarrhoea 35 (25.9)c
 Others 70 (51.9)c
Source of midline fasting food (n = 366), n (%)
 Gifts 35 (9.6)
 Purchase 87 (23.8)
 Home 236 (64.5)
 others 8 (2.2)
Source of end line fasting food (n = 366), n (%)
 Gifts 42 (11.5)
 Buying 74 (20.2)
 Home  243 (66.4)
 Others 7 (1.9)
  1. ameasured at baseline bmeasured at midline cmeasured at endline dmeasured at post Ramadan