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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the analysis

From: Severely malnourished children with a low weight-for-height have similar mortality to those with a low mid-upper-arm-circumference: II. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Ref Study Author & year Country Settinga Study design Prospect Retrosp Date of data MUAC stand WHZ stand Age range Oed Oed cases “Both” in study “Both” in survey Time obs Missing data Default or lost Original analysis
# #       year mm Z or % month   % % % d.m % %  
Studies giving numbers of children fulfilling both WHZ and MUAC criteria
 41 1 Aguayo 2015 India IPF Case notes Retrosp 2009–11 < 115 <− 3 WHO 6–59 excl   63.9 21.3 14 d ng 22.9 Log reg
 42 2 Grellety 2012 Niger Com Com trial Prospect 2010 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–23 excl   35.1 24.9 5 m 5.3 0.0 Cox PH reg
 21 3 Grellety 2015 South Sudan OTP Case notes Retrosp 2008 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–59 excl   31.7 20.3 51 d 8.6 15.0 Binom reg
 43 4 Isanaka 2015 Niger OTP RCT Prospect 2012–3 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–59 excl   39.2 24.9 29.5 d 0.0 1.0 Log-binom
 44 5 Lowlaavar 2016 Uganda IPF Cohort Prospect 2012–3 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–60 excl   22.5 11.6 3 d ng 9.7 Log reg
 45 6 LaCourse 2014 Malawi IPF Case notes Prospect 2011–2 < 110 < 70% NCHS 6–60 excl   14.2 8.8 ng 0.5 0.0 Chisq OR
 35 7 Olofin 2016 DRC,Senegal,Nepal Com Com cohort Prospect 1983–92 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–59 excl   21.9 20,12,7 2–6 m ng ng Cox PH reg
Studies including oedema
 46 8 Berkley 2005 Kenya IPF Case notes Prospect 1999–02 < 115 <−3 NCHS 12–59 incl 34.2 42.9 8.8b ng 3.6 ng ROC curve
 47 9 Chiabi 2017 Cameroun IPF Case notes Retrosp 2006–14 < 115 <− 3 WHO 6–59 incl ng 58.5 17.0 ng 30.7 10.1 ROC curve
 48 10 Sachdeva 2016 India IPF Case notes Prospect 2012–3 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–60 incl 3.8 32.2 21.3 3.7 d ng 15.0 ROC curve
Studies where children fulfilling both criteria are incorporated into both the WHZ and MUAC categories
 49 11 Burza 2016 India Com Follow up Prospect 2009–11 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–59 ng ng ng 21.3 18 m 26.7 ng Log reg
 50 12 Mogeni 2011 Kenya IPF Case notes Prospect 2007–9 < 115 <−3 WHO 6–60 incl 19.2 ng 8.8b ng 5.4 ng Chisq
 51 13 Sylla 2015 Senegal IPF Case notes Retrosp 2012 < 115 <− 3 WHO 0–60 ng ng ng 6.6 ng ng ng Log reg
 52 14 Vella 1990 Uganda Com Com cohort Prospect 1988 < 115 <−3 NCHS 0–60 incl ng ng 11.6 ng 13.0 10.0 Log reg
 53 15 Dramaix 1993 DRC IPF Case notes Prospect 1986–8 < 115 < 70% NCHS 0–60 incl 28.9 ng 11.5 60 d 15.4 ng Log reg
 54 16 Girum 2017 Ethiopia IPF Case notes Retrosp 2013–5 < 115 < 70% ng ng incl 66.6 ng 15.5 13 d ng 11.6 Cox PH reg
 55 17 Savadogo 2007 BFA IPF Case notes Retrosp 1999–03 Tertile <−3 NCHS 0- < 36 excl ng ng 18.3 19 d ng 18.3 Cox PH reg
 36 18 Garenne1987 Senegal Com Com cohort Prospect 1983–4 < 115 <−3 NCHS 1–60 incl ng ng 6.6 3 m ng ng Life table
 37 19 Garenne 2009 Senegal Com Com cohort Prospect 1983–4 < 110 CDC2000 1–60 incl ng ng 6.6 3 m ng ng Life table
 37 20 Garenne 2009 DRC Com Com cohort Prospect 1989–92 < 110 CDC2000 1–60 incl ng ng 11.5 6 m ng ng Life table
 38 21 VD Broeck 1993 DRC Com Com cohort Prospect 1989–92 <−4 SD <−3 NCHS 0–60 incl ng ng 11.5 3 m ng ng Life table
  1. a For brief description of each study and comments please see Additional File 2
  2. b These studies were on the Kenya coast and the nutritional survey was from North Kenya
  3. DRC Democratic Republic of Congo (COD), BFA Burkina Faso, IPF In-patient Facility, Com community study, OTP Out-patient treatment program, RCT randomized controlled trial, Retrosp retrospective, Prospect prospective, stand standards used to define SAM, WHO World Health Organisation 2006 WHZ standards, NCHS National Center for Health Statistics 1996 standards, CDC2000 Centre for Disease Control 2000 standards, Oed oedematous cases (kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor), excl excluded from analysis, incl included in analysis, ng not given in report, “Both” in study the proportion of all the SAM cases which had both WHZ < − 3Z and MUAC < 115 mm in the study’s subjects, “Both” in survey the proportion of all SAM cases that had both WHZ < − 3Z and MUAC < 115 mm derived from a nutritional survey of a random sample of the community (see [21]), obs average time the subjects were observed to determine the outcome, d.m days or months, log logistic, reg regression, Binom binomial, PH Proportional Hazards, Chisq Chi-squared Test, OR odds ratio. Non-standard definitions of SAM and age ranges not within the 6-60 month age range are shown in bold script.