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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects that completed the study (N = 49)

From: Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial

  Treatment group  
Baseline data Control WG FV P-value
Subjects (N) 14 17 18  
Gender (M/F) 7/7 6/11 6/12 0.20
Age (years) 27.6 ± 5.9 b 39.2 ± 13.5 a 29.4 ± 12.8 ab < 0.01
BMI (kg/m2) 30.1 ± 5.2 33.7 ± 6.3 30.3 ± 6.0 0.40
Plasma inflammatory markers
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 2.9 ± 1.5 4.4 ± 1.9 4.3 ± 2.6 0.60
 TNF-α (pg/mL) 23.8 ± 5.9 26.7 ± 4.17 24.2 ± 5.2 0.11
 hs-CRP (mg/mL) 0.6 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.4 0.89
 LBP (mg/L) 1.8 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.4 0.38
Stool short chain fatty acids (mmol/g feces)
 SCFA 101 ± 71 59.9 ± 39.7 64.0 ± 36.1 0.29
  Acetate 64.6 ± 38.2 42.9 ± 27.9 46.6 ± 28.0 0.43
  Propionate 20.4 ± 23.0 9.74 ± 7.65 9.61 ± 5.93 0.30
  Butyrate 16.3 ± 12.8 7.14 ± 5.32 7.80 ± 5.15 0.07
 BCFA 2.34 ± 1.74 1.74 ± 1.30 1.52 ± 0.78 0.37
Stool microbiota composition (relative abundance, %)
 Actinobacteria 6.54 ± 4.08 5.99 ± 3.39 4.42 ± 4.32 0.36
 Bacteroidetes 13.8 ± 9.7 11.2 ± 5.7 12.3 ± 8.1 0.38
 Firmicutes 78.8 ± 9.2 81.0 ± 8.4 82.4 ± 9.5 0.28
 Proteobacteria 0.67 ± 0.08 1.14 ± 1.92 0.43 ± 0.55 0.26
 Verrucomicrobia 0.18 ± 0.42 0.62 ± 1.13 0.46 ± 0.94 0.75
 Other 0.04 ± 0.11 0.07 ± 0.14 0.05 ± 0.14 0.79
  1. Mean ± standard deviation; WG whole grain, FV fruits and vegetables, BMI body mass index, IL-6 interleukin-6, TNF tumor necrosis factor-α, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LBP lipopolysaccharide binding protein, SCFA short chain fatty acids, BCFA branched chain fatty acids