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Table 5 Relationship between vegetable intake amount and prevalence of cardiometabolic disease among adults, 1999–2014

From: Greater vegetable variety and amount are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2014

Cardiometabolic disease outcome Vegetable subtypes
Dark green Red/orange Legumes Starchy Other
Odds ratio (95% CI)
 Cardiometabolic
  Non-consumers Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
  Consumers 0.91 (0.87–1.09) 0.97 (0.87–1.09) 0.97 (0.85–1.10) 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
 Cardiovascular
  Non-consumers Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
  Consumers 0.86 (0.74–0.99)* 0.90 (0.77–1.04) 1.02 (0.87–1.2) 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 0.94 (0.81–1.10)
 Coronary heart
  Non-consumers Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
  Consumers 0.78 (0.65–0.94)* 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 1.18 (0.97–1.44) 0.96 (0.81–1.12) 0.96 (0.78–1.19)
 Stroke
  Non-consumers Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
  Consumers 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 0.82 (0.66–1.03) 1.07 (0.92–1.23) 0.94 (0.78–1.14)
 Diabetes
  Non-consumers Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent
  Consumers 0.92 (0.81–1.05) 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.03 (0.93–1.15)
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, race/ethnicity, intake of fatty acids (unsaturated:saturated), intake of added sugar, income-to-poverty ratio, education, and the consumption amount of the remaining vegetable subtypes
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. Cardiometabolic disease includes coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes
  4. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease and stroke